Lahaina, and Hawaii through history, 1941.



According to information gleaned from the Bishop Museum records and the Archives of Mr. E. Bryan Jr., curator at the Museum, the old Lahaina Prison was built in 1851 and completed in April 1852. This was during the reign of Kamehameha III, who ruled until 1854.

For “local color” at that time I have talked with old Hawaiians who are from 70 to 80 years of age, and have also spent many hours at the Wailuku library reading old volumes supplied by Mrs. Juliette Davis, Librarian. Continue reading

Queen Liliuokalani being tried in military court, 1895.


Most of the previous week was spent trying just one case, that of V. V. Ashford, accused of misprision of treason [huna kipi]. He denied the charges, and defense witnesses were brought in. The defendant was also brought in to defend himself, however, the defense Lawyer did not had no planned words for the benefit of his client, and he was continuiously questioned for four days and more. But he put a request before the Military Court [Aha Koa] to release the prisoner [lawehala]. The Lawyer for the public for the Military Court will weigh the testimony of the accused and the testimony of the people, and will sentence the offender. His ruling of case is being considered.

When the Military Court convened in the afternoon of February 1, those imprisoned under the charge of treason: Keki, Keoho, Tommy Ai, Nameless [Listed as Olii in 2/1/1895 Hawaiian Star.], John Piko, W. Kekoa, Kaanaana, Ulukou, Elia, Sam Hookano, Kahikikolu, Koia Kapena, Waianae, Keawe, Hikileo, George Makalena, Kamae, Kalawalu, James H. Bush, Buff Moepali, Manuel Rosa, and John H. Wise.

Each of them were asked if they wanted a lawyer. Twenty-one of them answered in the negative, saying that they did not want a lawyer, and J. H. Wise was the only one who wanted to be defended by the attorney Neumann. Therefore Wise’s case was postponed to a later date, and he was taken out.

Ulukou was the only one of the prisoners who objected to Captain Camara sitting to judge, and Camara was dismissed from sitting on the Commission. The remaining members of the Military Commission were not objected to.

The charges were read, and each were asked for their response. The first seven named admitted to their guilt, and the rest denied the charges. With the questioning of the witnesses, it was made clear that they were only on the outside of the military camp where the weapons were ministered to, however, according to some people, they were urged and enticed, and that is the reason some of them went to the area of the military camp. Their verdict is being considered.

At 11:15 midday of Tuesday, February 5, Liliuokalani Dominis was taken from her room where she is held prisoner in the Executive Building [Iolani Palace], to the grand Room [throne room] where the Military Trials are being held, filled with spectators. Major Potter escorted Mrs. Dominis accompanied to the door by Mrs. C. B. Wilson, then Lieutenant Kenake brought her in and sat her to the left of her lawyer Neumann. Mrs. Dominis was wearing a black dress with a hat of the same color, and her honor and royal dignity of when she sat upon the throne had fallen and shattered. The charges were read to Mrs. Dominis, of the crime she was accused of, misprision of treason, however her attorney was criticized for asking that the trial be postponed until another day. On the following Wednesday and Thursday were the responses of the prisoner and the witnesses. Mrs. Dominis vehemently denied any knowledge of the planning for war, but did admit to appointing a new cabinet of Ministers for herself.

[When looking at anything, like this article, it is important to try and understand the context. The Kuokoa, during this period at least, seems to be pro-annexation and pro-American. By reading this and the rest of its pages, you can see it is definitely not pro-Monarchy!

What were the other Hawaiian-Language Newspapers saying? The Oiaio, which was a weekly, issued a paper on 1/4/1895, and only after 10 weeks, on 3/15/1895, did it/could it print its next issue. Leo o ka Lahui, a daily which printed from Mondays through Fridays, printed an issue on 1/4/1895, and stopped/was stopped from printing until 3/12/1895 (although this issue seems not extant). What were the other English-language newspapers saying? What were the other language papers reporting?]

(Kuokoa, 2/9/1895, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XXXIV, Helu 6, Aoao 2. Feberuari 9, 1895.

A mele for Grover Cleveland, 1894.


He ohohia nui loa
Nou e Kalivalana
Peresidena oikelakela
Kaulana me ke kiekie
O ka puuwai hao kila
O ka naauao lua ole
Pookela oe o ka nani
O ka manao akea
No ka ninau lahui
O ka Pae Aina Hawaii
Kau olelo hooholo
E hoi o Liliuokalani
Ma Kona Noho Kalaunu
O ke Aupuni Moi
Mai a Kamehameha mai
Piha olioli na moku
Ia oe e Kalivalana
Hauoli na puuwai
O ka Lahui Hawaii
I ke aloha kamahao
O Amerika Huiia
Lohea he leo aloha
Mai Wasinetona mai
Lanakila oikelakela
Ka Aoao Demokarata
Haneri a oi aku
Na kakoo o Hawaii
Puhi i na Pi Gi
Na hoohui aina
Ua haule na ikaika
A ka poe lehelehe wale
E ka Lahui Hawaii
E i ae hoi ka Hoola
Ke kuokoa mau loa
No Hawaii Aina
Lahui me ka Moi
E o e Kalivalana
I kou inoa hiwahiwa
“Ka Wiwo ole o na Wiwo ole
Ka makuakane o Hawaii
Ka Puuhonua o ka Pakipika
E noho ana i ka puuwai
O ka Lahui Hawaii.”

W. L. Kaleiakalahui.


There is great delight
For you O Cleveland
The greatest President
Famous and exalted
With heart of steel
An intelligence second to none
You are in the heights of splendor
With open mind
On the question of the people
Of the Hawaiian Archipelago
Your decision
To return Liliuokalani
To Her Throne
Of the Monarchy
From Kamehameha
The islands are filled with joy
For you O Cleveland
Hearts are happy
Of the Hawaiian People
With wonderful love
Of the United States of America
A voice of aloha has been heard
From Washington
Great Victory
The Democratic Party
Hundred or more
Were the supporters of Hawaii
Blown away were the Provisional Government
The annexationists
The powerful have fallen
The people who are all mouth
O Hawaiian Nation
The Savior says
Let there be never-ending independence
For the Land of Hawaii
The People and the Sovereign
Answer O Cleveland
Your precious name song
"The Fearless one amongst Fearless ones
The father of Hawaii
The Refuge of the Pacific
Living in the hearts
Of the Hawaiian People."

W. L. Kaleiakalahui.

The attitude of the Hawaiian nation towards Grover Cleveland on the most part was and is (as seen recently) much different than towards his successor, William McKinley.]

(Nupepa Aloha Aina, 3/17/1894, p. 3)


Nupepa Aloha Aina, Buke I, Helu 11, Aoao 3. Maraki 17, 1894.

The Hawaiian Moses? 1893.


We refer, of course, to the Hawaiian political Moses, who has recently broken camp, and set the faithful in motion through sea, desert and wilderness to the Land of Promise, beyond the shadow of the Throne. Yes! We refer to the Hawaiian political Moses, but whether his other name is Dole or Thurston, has not, at this writing, fully transpired. Still, the doubt as to his other name is a merely nominal doubt, not affecting the merits of the case. And as the original state—man of that name was not gifted with immunity from error, so neither has the Hawaiian Moses, even during his very brief pilgrimage, avoided all mistakes. It should ever be the part of a friend to note his friends’ infirmities, and, by bringing them mildly to their authors’ notice, suggest their reform, or convey a warning against their repetition.


We are all aware of the high pressure of seeming necessity under which the present government was formed. We can therefore appreciate, to some extent, the causes of the neglect to observe, towards the numerous Native element, those marks of regard and confidence without which no government can hope to endure in Hawaii. We repeat, that the pressure of the occasion must be the excuse of the gentlemen at the head of the movement for their seemingly unfriendly, and even hostile attitude toward the entire Native race, in the ordering of early events under the new dispensation.


The exclusion of Hawaiians from a participation in the beneficent project not only seemed, but was, and is complete. There may have been, and no doubt were reasons, seemingly sound to those who adopted them, for such a course,—reasons of which the public cannot judge, because the public know them not. Yet it would seem that one of two propositions must be true; viz.: either the Hawaiians were needlessly, and, therefore, harshly excluded from such participation in the reforming of their own government, or else the entire race were deemed by the leaders to be unfit to participate in such an enterprise.


If the former of the above propositions be true, one would naturally expect the mistake to be rectified at the earliest opportunity. That it has not been rectified would seem to stamp it as having been no mistake, but a course deliberately adopted, for, note the opportunity to retrieve the error, (if error it had been thought to be) in the filling of the four vacancies in the Advisory Council, on the 21st inst. It was then, as seems to us, the manifest duty of the government to seek out and appoint to those vacancies, men of Hawaiian blood, whose brains, interests and loyalty to the new idea bespoke than as deserving of such honor and confidence.


The failure of the government to attempt to bring even one Hawaiian to a seat at the Council Board is susceptible of only one of two meanings:—1st, that no Hawaiian could be found possessing those qualifications, or, 2nd, that the government were determined to ignore and exclude them, in any event.


If such exclusion was premeditated and malicious, the less said of it the better, as it is self-condemnatory. If on the other hand, there be no native Hawaiian fit to occupy a seat in the government councils, with what degree of candor or confidence can the Provisional Government request of expect the United States to incorporate our country into itself? What a commentary upon that request is the action of the government itself, in thus excluding from their confidence the entire aboriginal race, more completely than the Mongolian is now excluded from the Union. Forty odd thousand Hawaiians on these shores, and not one, (in the opinion of the government,) entitled or qualified to have a voice in the government of his native land. What a text for the American enemies of annexation, and how they will use it!

(Liberal, 1/25/1893, p. 2)


The Liberal, Volume I, Number 39, Page 2. January 25, 1893.

Annexation or not? 1893.

[Found under: "THIS AND THAT."]

There is much talk these day; some say that there is no way that the United States of America will listen to the request of the Commission to annex Hawaii, being that there is no Native Hawaiian of the land asking for this. Some say that a Republic will be established if the U. S. doesn’t agree.

(Liberal, 1/25/1893, p. 4)

He nui na olelo o keia mau la...

The Liberal, Volume I, Number 39, Page 4. January 25, 1893.

C. C. Moreno on missionaries, 1893.

A Misunderstood People.


Editor Post: For several years your public-spirited paper has published correspondence and statements submitted by me about Hawaii in which was foreshadowed the present state of affairs. The revolution which has just taken place is the inevitable result of missionary rule; the long-standing and deep-rooted cause of the unrest.

The missionaries in Hawaii, as in China, Japan, and elsewhere, consider that country as their open hunting grounds, regardless of the rights, customs, wishes, and priviliges of the natives and of stipulations.

I positively know that the self-appointed four chiefs of the Provisional Government in the Hawaiian Islands and the five commissioners coming to Washington to negotiate a treaty of annexation are, without a single exception, missionariesʻ confederates. Not a single native Hawaiian is with them, therefore, they cannot be considered as the representatives of the Hawaiian nation, of which they are aliens and enemies, but only as the emissaries of one side (or of a higher), which is not the right side.

The truth about Hawaiian affairs has never reached the State Department and that is the reason why, in the department, the knife has always been taken by the blade instead of by the handle in dealing with the Hawaiian question.

The United States always sent third rate politicians as ministers and consult to Honolulu, hence the erroneous information about Hawaii. I have on the spot studied Hawaii and the Hawaiians, their troubles with the missionaries of all creeds, and when distant from the islands I have kept an uninterrupted correspondence with the leaders of the Hawaiian nation, such as the Hons. Wilcox, Bush, Testa, Kaai, Kapena, Kaunamano, Kimo Pelekane [James I. Dowsett], and others.

My views on the Hawaiian question I explained at length to President Hayes and Secretary of State Evarts, to President Cleveland and to Assistant Secretary of State Porter: later, to Senator Morgan and to Congressman McCreary, and these are the statesmen that ought to dispose of the Hawaiian question and render justice to the weak, ill-treated, honest, and generous Hawaiian people that have been continually misrepresented, misjudged, and grossly wronged.

In accordance with the good order of things the coming self-appointed and self-styled Hawaiian commissioners, with more appearance than substance, should not be received by the United States authorities, because their self-attributed mission to Washington is based only upon selfish and malignant motives.

This will be a good opportunity for the great people of the United States to show their sentiment for fair play and generosity toward the unfortunate, harmless, friendly, and oppressed Hawaiian people, worthy of sympathy and of help in this their hour of national distress.

Celco Cæsar Moreno.

(Liberal, 2/25/1893, p. 2)

A Misunderstood People.

The Liberal, Volume I, Number 48, Page 2. February 25, 1893.

As it was then it is now. 1893 / 2013.


Kaulana na pua a Hawaii
Kupaa mahope o ka Aina
Hiki mai ka Elele a ka lokoino
Palapala anunu me ka pakaha
Pane mai Hawaii Nui a Keawe
Kokua na Hono a Piilani
Kakoo mai Kauai o Mao
Pau pu me ke one o Kakuhihewa
Aole e kau kuu pulima
Maluna o ka pepa a ka Enemi
Aole makou e minamina
I ka puu kala a ke Aupuni
Ua ola makou i ka pohaku
I ka ai kamahao a ka Aina
Hoohui Aina kuai hewa
I ka pono Kiwila a o ke kanaka
Mahope makou o Liliulani
A kau hou ia i ke Kalaunu
Haina ia mai ana ka puana
No ka poe i Aloha i ka Aina.


Famous are the blossoms of Hawaii
Who stand steadfast behind the Land
When the evil-hearted Messengers arrives
With their documents of greed and plunder
Great Hawaii of the Chief Kakuhihewa answers
The Bays of the Chief Piilani assists
Kauai of the Chief Manokalanipo gives support
Along with the sands of the Chief Kakuhihewa
I will not affix my signature
Upon the paper of the Enemy¹
We will not feel longing
For the sums of money from the Government
We live on the rocks
On the amazing food of the Land
[Annexing and selling wrongfully
The Civil rights of the people]
We stand behind Liliulani
Her Crown shall be placed back upon her
Let the refrain be told
Of the people who Love the Land.

Miss Kekoaohiwaikalani,
Puahaulani Hale,
Honolulu, Feb. 10, 1893.

As a result of the many requests we received to reprint the mele of the Patriots, we are fulfilling your desire; and this is a totally accurate copy of this Mele gotten from the Lady who composed this mele.

[This mele was indeed printed many times in the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers, attesting to its importance. It is just as important today, 120 years since, if not more so!]

¹It appears that the bracketed lines were misplaced and should follow here. …or perhaps not, as it appears in basically this same form three years later: Aloha Aina, Buke III, Helu 24, Aoao 4. Iune 13, 1896. “E Nana Mai i ke Mele.”

(Leo o ka Lahui, 5/16/1893, p. 3)


Ka Leo o ka Lahui, Buke II, Helu 706, Aoao 3. Mei 16, 1893.

More on the landing of the Boston, 1893.


We have received news that the Ministers of the Queen sent their written protest to the Minister of the United States for his ordering the landing of the armed men from the man-of-war Boston on the evening of this Monday notwithstanding that there was peace on land. And this objection was jointly supported by the Commissioners of the Nations of Great Britain, France, Portugal, and Japan, by them signing a document opposing this action over these reasons—(1), Because of the agreement under law between the Nations to give prior notice. (2),  There was no cause to land the troops being that there was peace.

This is the Law, that being there is no other Nation that has any right to land its troops while there is peace; were there internal problems, but only if there was an uprising or a civil war, only then could there be troops landed to watch over and protect the safety of their citizens as well as their property.

(Hawaii Holomua, 1/18/1893, p. 3)


Hawaii Holomua, Buke III, Helu 141, Aoao 3. Ianuari 18, 1893.

More on the Boston, 1893.

[Excerpt from the article: "OVERTHROW IN HAWAII NEI: The Queen Attempts to Push a New Constitution"]

At perhaps 5 oʻclock in the afternoon, the American warship Boston [Bosetona] landed its officers and sailors who were armed. When they came ashore, the marines were split up to go and guard the residence of the American Minister Stevens on Nuuanu Avenue, and the American Consulate on Merchant Street, and the sailors were sent to King Street and stood before the residence of J. A. Hopper, and later they were sent to the residence of Mr. J. B. Atherton. They stayed there for some time, and then all came back and slept in Arion Hall [Ariona Holo] makai of the Opera House. They are still on shore to the present.

(Kuokoa, 1/21/1893, p. 2)

I ka hora 5 paha o ke ahiahi...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XXXII, Helu 3, Aoao 2. Ianuari 21, 1893.

Coverage of the landing of the USS Boston, 1893.

The American Troops Come Ashore.

Without knowledge of the Government, and regardless of the agreement of the American Minister that the soldiers from the warship would not come ashore, being that the Government was prepared to uphold the peace; the American Minister ordered the soldiers of the Boston to to take control. This is an apparent act of aggression, and if that nation learns of the truth of this act by its official, it will be grounds for him to be condemned.

[This article and the following are coverage of the landing of the U. S. S. Boston 120 years ago today by different newspapers. Just as we see today, back then there was different coverage depending on what you read.]

(Leo o ka Lahui, 1/17/1893, p. 2)

Ua Lele Mai na koa Amerika.

Ka Leo o ka Lahui, Buke II, Helu 624, Aoao 2. Ianuari 17, 1893.