Kalakaua Day, 1916.


Morning Reception, Appearance of Pa-u Riders and Dance at Night Make Up Program

in honor of the Kalakaua Dynasty which ruled over the Hawaiian Islands for 22 years, Honolulu will celebrate tomorrow, and the day will be filled with many pleasant features.

The big affair of the day will occur in the evening when the reception and ball at the armory will be held. Because of the illness of Queen Liliuokalani, she will not be able to attend, but in her place Prince and Princess Kalanianaole will receive the guests. After the reception three orchestras will furnish music for the dancing and a gala time is anticipated. A large number of invitations have been issued and to be sure that no one was overlooked Princess Kawananakoa chairman of the invitation committee, wishes all who have not received invitations to go to the Promotion Committee rooms on Bishop street.

The festivities of the day will begin in the morning when 21 pa-u riders will gather at Princess Auto Stand on King street and from there, headed by Princess Theresa Wilcox, president and wife of the first delegate to congress, and Mrs. J. Fern, vice-president, will march up King street to Aala park. From there the march will return on King and up Fort, to Hotel, then Bishop, King and up Richards to the residence of Queen Liliuokalani, where a short call will be made. From the queen’s residence the riders will follow Beretania street to Pensacola street to the home of Princess Kawananakoa, where a reception will be held from 9 to 12 in the morning. Here a short speech will be made by a member of the riders. In the evening the pa-u riders will attend the ball in full costume of royal purple with leis around their necks and a golden band on which is the word “Kaohelelani,” the name of a descendant of the royal house of Keoua, the father of the Kamehamehas.

The reception of Princess Kawananakoa is for Hawaiians only and therefore no one else will be permitted inside the grounds unless they have a special invitation.

(Star-Bulletin, 11/15/1916, p. 8)


Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXIV, Number 7674, Page 8. November 15, 1916.

Reply by the Ministers, 1876.

The Ministerial Reply.

To the Hon. Godfrey Rhodes, the Hon. A. S. Cleghorn, Walter Murray Gibson, Esq., the Hon. Henry A. P. Carter, P. C. Jones, Jnr., Esq., J. C. Glade, Esq., F. A. Schaefer, Esq., H. M. Whitney, Esq., and to the other gentlemen who signed the address to His Majesty, dated February 25th, 1876.


His Majesty in Privy Council, having appointed the undersigned a Committee to reply to the address which you presented to him on the 29th ult., on the subject of the repopulation of these Islands, they hasten to inform you, that His Majesty feels the deepest interest in this all important question, and is equally gratified with the zeal and the spirit of loyalty which you exhibit in approaching the subject, and he is satisfied that this combined action on the part of so large and influential a portion of the community as have attached their names to the said address cannot but result in good and in a sounder knowledge of the means requisite to advance the great object which we all have in view.

As you are well aware, gentlemen, this subject is not a new one; it is one that has anxiously occupied the thoughts and the time of every Hawaiian King and Cabinet during the last quarter of a century; and if failure instead of success has so far been the result of most of the schemes which have been inaugurated for repeopling this kingdom, that is no reason why renewed efforts should not continue to be made. Nothing would have been easier than for the present Government to have spent another $10,000 or $15,000 of the public money in abortive attempts to introduce a permanent and useful population, but the history of past efforts in this direction teaches that it is much easier to fit out expeditions for bringing immigrants to our shores, than to obtain people such as will, in the words of your address, “be well suited for complete assimilation with the race that peoples this archipelago.”

For gentlemen, we understand and His Majesty understands your address to mean, that it is not only men that may be required for the immediate wants of our agriculturists that you desire should be introduced, but men and women of “kindred race” to the Hawaiians, by which they may “gain an infusion of fresh blood,” and so be preserved. This may truly be part of the great problem to be solved, but the undersigned in the name of His Majesty’s Ministers would feel much diffidence about holding out any very confident hopes that they will be able soon to accomplish such a very important and desirable result, although it is encouraging to learn from you, that in your opinion “the vast hive of Asia invites us to recuperate our Asiatic and tropical population from its teeming millions.” * * “and we shall find the consanguineous affinities we need in the overpeopled plains of British India, in the swarming Isles of the great Malay Archipelago, in the noble Empire of Japan, so youthful in its civilization, and in other countless hordes of the industrious and prolific races of the great and parent continent of the world.”

The difficulty would seem to be then in your opinion, gentlemen, to select out of a profusion of choice from the kindred people of Asia, the population which we require to recuperate the Hawaiian race. It cannot however afford any real assistance to the object we have at heart to take a too sanguine view of the position. Let us glance at the Continent of Asia, and its great archipelagoes. First and nearest to us lies Japan, inhabited by a people who are generally considered akin to the Hawaiians, and whom we all agree would be very desirable immigrants. Efforts have been made by former Governments to bring them—some were brought—but as you all know most of them had to be sent back again at the request of the Japanese Government. Notwithstanding this failure, the different Governments since then, have been persistent in their enquiries of our Charge d’Affaires there, as to whether any prospect appeared of our being able to bring Japanese immigrants. The answer has been as persistently—No! The Minister of Foreign Affairs published in the newspapers of this city, only a few weeks ago, the latest reply to his enquiries on this subject from our Charge in Japan, and in which he positively stated, that at present there was no hope whatever of obtaining immigrants from there. One of our Charges, Mr. De Long, in 1873, resigned that position in Japan on account of the efforts of the Hawaiian Government to obtain Japanese laborers through his influence and aid. Notwithstanding these rebuffs, the opportunity may arise of obtaining Japanese, and if it does, it will not be neglected by His Majesty’s Government. But gentlemen, when in our address you refer to the noble Empire of Japan as the source for recuperating our population, you must be understood to mean that the Japanese are, as we also believe, desirable immigrants, not that it has been hitherto, or that it appears to be in the near future, practicable to get them, for the circumstances of the difficulties connected with the Japanese immigrants are too recent for you to have forgotten them. What might have been accomplished in this case by the exercise of a more “faithful and intelligent diplomacy,” which you seem to infer may have been ignored or neglected, the undersigned cannot undertake to say;—and although no doubt there may readily be found amongst us men possessed of more persuasive ability than His Majesty’s Ministers can pretend to, some amongst you will perhaps be prepared to admit, as the result of dear bought experience, that is is an easier task to persuade immigrants to come to these Islands than to persuade them to stop, when you get them here.

But to continue our review of Asia. We need only glance at the map to see that the shores of that great continent nearest to us are occupied almost entirely by China—that astonishing Empire whose people have not only maintained their existence, may we not say, as a civilized nation from long before the time when our ancestors were covering their bodies with war paint, but who are now by far the most numerous separate people on the face of the earth, and who are to0day overflowing, not only into all the neighboring Archipelago of Malaysia, but are holding their own as an industrious people amongst and in spite of the “hoodlums” of California, and the “roughs” of Australia. It is Chinese who constructed the railroads of Peru, have dug the coal mines of Borneo; nay, they have been in request to build the railroads in Bengal, the very home of the cheap Hindoo [Hindu] laborer. It seems, to say the least, unfortunate for His Majesty’s Government that of all “the vast hive of Asia, of all the industrious and prolific races of the great and parent continent of the world,” the Chinese, who are the only people which the government has found it practicable to induce to migrate to these islands, should be the only Asiatics which you, gentlemen, should especially object to. All the other “countless hordes” of Asiatics you seem prepared to welcome, and in view of the highly respectable character of the signatures to the address now under reply, the members of His Majesty’s Cabinet feel grieved that their efforts to do what they best could under the circumstances, should have so signally failed to be satisfactory to those for whose benefit they considered they were more especially taking this responsibility. But what they still more regret, is to find that you consider that the introduction of Chinese must, from their unchaste character, aggravate the sterility of Hawaiian women. If this be true, the introduction of Chinese should be stopped instanter. It is no doubt true that the disproportion of the sexes is an evil in any country, but it is a period of trial which many countries have of necessity to pass through, and from which they recover in due time. In remembering the evil doings of some of the worst of the Chinese however, we should bear in mind that an outcry would probably be made when a low Chinese is discovered sinning, when the same crime would hardly call for a remark amongst a similar class of natives. We should also bear in mind the fact that some of the largest families which have been borne to Hawaiian women have been by Chinese fathers, and that even the lower orders of Chinese, and we say this with regret, are, we believe, reckoned by the Hawaiian women to make more faithful and attentive husbands than the similar class of Hawaiians. The progeny also of these two races seems so far to confirm your view that the mingling of Hawaiians and Asiatic blood may prove a success, so far at least as the Chinese are concerned. Of the result of a union with other Asiatics, of the less robust Hindoo for instance, with an Hawaiian woman, we have little experience; it is to be hoped that such an experience may be soon afforded.

The next portion of Asia which presents itself is, as you justly term them, “the swarming isles of the great Malay Archipelago.” The attention of all the different Hawaiian Cabinets has been repeatedly called to this part of the globe as a region from whence to draw our much desired population, and the records of the correspondence of our Foreign Office show that as repeatedly, enquiries for definite information on the subject have been made by the government. The undersigned may also state that they have taken some pains to ascertain what were the chances of success in this quarter, and the result of their enquiries agrees with the experience of the Hawaiian Cabinets before them, that the idea of obtaining our population from thence is entirely visionary. The latest letters from our Charge d’affaires in London, Mr. Manly Hopkins, confirm those previously received from Mr. Varigny, Dr. Hillebrand and other who have been especially directed to make evvery inquiry on this subject; and all leads to the conclusion that the Malay Archipelago cannot be looked to as a source of population for Hawaii. The broad fact that the Dutch in Sumatra and Java, and the English in Queensland and the Fijis, which are comparatively close by, cannot, notwithstanding their great anxiety to do so, make those Malaysian populations available, is an evidence that we at this great distance would probably meet with no better success. His Majesty’s Government consider that after all the enquiries which have been made by previous Cabinets and by the Board of Immigration on this subject, only to learn again and again that it is impracticable to obtain people from thence, it is now time that this “Will o’ the Wisp” should be finally removed from before the eyes of this community.

The next portion  of Asia which we approach, at least from which any population suitable for Hawaii may be hoped for, is “the over-peopled plains of British India,” as you, to some extent, correctly term them. In 1866 Dr. Hillebrand was commissioned by the Hawaiian Government to proceed to Asia for the express purpose of gathering information respecting those regions as a source of supply for our laboring population. The undersigned cannot do better than make a few extracts from the Doctor’s report to the Board of Immigration on his return. In connection with the subject of our entering into a Convention with the British Government to allow us to supply ourselves with population from British India, the Doctor says, page 33: “I do not apprehend that this Government would meet with great obstacles in the conclusion of a treaty; but there is no doubt, that on the part of the European element in India, a strong feeling is gaining ground, in opposition to the emigration of coolies. The extensive net of railroads still in progress of being built, so as to intersect every important part of that country, the many agricultural enterprises which have started into existence since the mutiny, by private individuals and stock companies, particularly the tea and cotton cultivation, make large demands on the labor capacity of the country, which increase from year to year. People at these islands will find it strange that fears of dear labor are entertained in a country, where wages still average only five rupees a month, and famines are yearly occurrences; but I could bring numerous vouchers to the truth of my statement, and these feelings are even shared to some extent by the Indian Government.” On page 35 the Doctor refers to the great loss of life which often takes place in transporting the celebrated Hill Coolies, altho’ in many respects they are far the best of the East Indians. He observes: “A mortality of twenty to twenty-five per cent has occurred on journeys to the tea districts; and it has even risen as high as thirty per cent, on a voyage to the Mauritius.” Again on pages 38–39, the Doctor observes: “The two medical gentlemen confirmed what I had already heard about the great mortality of the Hill Coolies during the first week of the sea voyage. It is cholera that causes this awful loss of life, and it is ascribed to the sudden and great change of diet which these poor famished people undergo.” * * “One of the informants expresses himself thus: ‘They seem to carry the cholera in their blood!'” Notwithstanding these alarming statements and the difficulty of bringing these people so far, the Doctor seems inclined to recommend a trial of “a few hundred Indian Coolies composed of the different races mentioned above, to try and test the various resources available to us.” The most that can be inferred from this report is that in the pressing deman for laborers, the Doctor suggested that an experiment might be tried, the result of which however he cautions us, may be doubtful with respect to the East Indians themselves, and not without danger to our own people. His Majesty’s Government hope that British India may offer a field for an effort to recruit our population and they will continue enquiries in this direction in the expectation that when the proper time arrives something practicably may appear. We have the advantage of the experienced Daniel Smith who has on several occasions been engaged in transporting these people to the British Colonies. It is evident however that extreme caution has to be exercised in all attempts at repopulation from British India, and that grave responsibility would be incurred by any Ministry who in too hastily yielding to demands for more people, might introduce diseases which this country through God’s mercy has hitherto escaped.

The undersigned do not propose to occupy your time further on the present occasion by discussing the various comprehensive and general suggestions contained in your address, for a radical reform and change in the policy and in the government of this country, especially as those suggestions embrace an extremely wide field, and would indeed require more consideration and elucidation than is consistent with or expected in a reply of this nature. They would however most respectfully state their belief that the majority of the signers of this address in their anxiety to see something developed on the main question, repopulation, did not fully appreciate that the wording of the address conveyed the impression that some new and great danger to the prosperity and to the independence of the Hawaiian Kingdom is imminent, an impression which the undersigned cannot think that most of you intended to convey, inasmuch as there does not appear in any of the aspects of the commercial or political state of this kingdom to-day, anything which calls for the very strong expressions of alarm used in many parts of your address; not anything more, certainly than has existed for the last quarter of a century.

The undersigned regret also that a misapprehension in one part of your address, to which one of your number calls attention, had not been earlier noticed by many of you, they refer to what you truly call the solemn appeal and invocation of His Majesty Kamehameha IV to his legislature, and which you quote, but which as the Hon. S. N. Castle truly remarks, referred specially to saving the Hawaiian race, not to introducing a foreign one, a distinction which Hawaiians cannot fail to appreciate at its true value; and as this solemn appeal of one of the most enlightened of our sovereigns is brought forward by you to aggravate what you seem to consider the failure of the present government to take certain measures for the repopulation of this kingdom from abroad, candour would have no doubt induced you, had your attention been earlier called to it, to recommend a remodelling of this part of your address, as Mr. Castle evidently saw was desirable for it was surely not your intention to make use of the invocation of Kamehameha IV to his legislature to try and effect one object, in order to urge upon his present majesty’s government the carrying out of a different one, for the repopulation of Hawaii from the teeming millions of Asia is clearly the burden of your address. It is true that you make references to a “recuperation” of the Hawaiian race “by the infusion of new blood” and from this point of view the term repopulation may bear meanings which are of widely different import, but which should be clearly understood. We, and you, gentlemen, are told that Asia will furnish the “consanguineous affinities” which shall effect this recuperation of the Hawaiian race. God grant that it may prove so, but He alone knows what races outside of Polynesia have the affinity to the Hawaiian that may be neccesary for this purpose! man does not know, science does not certainly inform him, it merely conjectures. It may be encouraging to be assured that dillegence and address will introduce races into this group, which shall by intermingling with them, “recuperate” the Hawaiian people although those who have though most on these subjects tell us how delicate and difficult such problems are, and a calm and careful consideration of this whole matter must impress us all strongly with the appropriateness of the remark appended in your address to the signature of the very Reverend the Bishop Louis Maigret, where he says, “calling to mind the words of David,” “unless the Lord build the house they labor in vain that build it.”

But His Majesty’s government are not desirous of laying too much stress on the points in this address to which they respectfully submit they may justly take exception, and of which they have only referred to a part; they are anxious on the contrary to consider it in the spirit in which they believe the large majority signed it, and they would gladly receive from you now, or as early as may be convenient, and after you thus learn their general views, further, more definite and practical suggestions, not only for repeopling the Hawaiian Islands from abroad, but for saving the lives of the people we have. You well know what large sums of money are regularly appropriated and spent with the latter object in view, and that what is to be done in future, to be of any effect, must be by legislation, and the appropriation of the requisite funds. The Legislature meets next month and the present therefore appears a most suitable time for His Majesty’s government to receivved from you practicable suggestions for legislation which may assist in staying the decrease of our native population, but in which effort, as we are all only too  well aware, every Legislature and every Cabinet has so far unfortunately failed.

The government and people of this country have had offers and promises from those who have professed to be able to cure our lepers, others lead us to infer that they could stop the decline of our population, or readily introduce a people that by amalgamation would recuperate the Hawaiian race; it is for you, gentlemen, to assist the government and the Legislature of this country in the somewhat difficult task of discriminating amongst these schemes, so that the resources of this kingdom may not be wasted by yielding to the tempation to invest the public money in those which are put forward with the most confidence and boldness only, and without dueregard to their soundness or feasibility.

(Signed.)  W. L. Green,

J. S. Walker.

Aliiolani Hale, Honolulu, March 3d, 1876.

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 3/4/1876, p. 3)

The Ministerial Reply.

The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Volume XX, Number 6, Page 3. March 4, 1876.

A memorial on repopulation, 1876.


The following is the text of the memorial of citizens which was presented to His Majesty on Tuesday last, by a committee of the signers:

To His Majesty the King,

Sire:—We, the undersigned, subjects and residents of this kingdom and friends of your Royal Person, in view of what we deem a grave condition of public affairs, take the liberty to address you in a spirit of frankness and loyalty in order to point out the danger that threatens the state, and at the same time the necessary measures to avoid the national peril.

We desire to say at the outset, that we are prompted to take part in this address not only on account of a loyal and friendly regard for Your Majesty’s person, but also by reason of our strong desire to see maintained, with ample honor and prosperity, the Independence of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

 The propriety of according the privileges of independent sovereignty to a state so much reduced in people as Your Majesty’s dominions is very much questioned, and the discussion is most detrimental to the dignity and permanence of the throne. This question was even raised in past years, when Hawaii numbered far more souls than at this time within her borders. When the commissioners of Kamehameha III presented the claims of this archipelago for recognition as an independent state to the Government of Great Britain in 1843, they were met at first with a peremptory refusal from Lord Aberdeen, the British foreign minister, on the ground that the state of Hawaii was a mere chieftaincy under foreign influences, and too small to be entitled to diplomatic courtesies and treaty making powers. And if such a view could be taken of our state thirty-three years ago, when we numbered about one hundred thousand people, what must be thought of our capability for independence now, when perhaps we number barely fifty thousand souls, natives and foreigners all told?

And yet this decline of the people, and the sad and ruinous disproportion of sex, so patent to every observation, has not, we are sorry to say, aroused any well concerted policy, or any line of action whatever looking to the increase of population and the recuperation of the kingdom. And at the same time we all bear in mind Your Majesty’s patriotic utterances at the commencement of your reign, that the increase of the people should be the watchword of your royal policy; therefore we cannot doubt how much you have at heart the stay and the recuperation of your declining state. And some of us can recall the words of preceding Hawaiian kings, deploring the loss of their people and praying for measures of repopulation; and especially may we repeat at this time the words of the enlightened and patriotic Kamehameha IV, addressed to this legislature, when he said:

“A subject of deeper importance than any I have yet mentioned is that of the decrease of our population. It is a subject in comparison with which all others sink into insignificance; for our first and great duty is self preservation. Our acts are in vain unless we can stay the wasting hand that is destroying our people. I feel a heavy and a special responsibility weighing upon me in this matter, but it is one in which you all must share; nor shall we be acquitted by man or our Maker of a neglect of duty if we fail to act speedily and effectually in the cause of a people who are every day dying before our eyes.” But after all this solemn appeal and invocation, what action has been taken,—what line of national policy pursued in reference to this great subject of repopulation, “in comparison with which all others” (in this kingdom) “sink into insignificance”?

What action indeed! Why, we have procured a few Chinese male laborers, and are expecting a few hundred more to add to the present mischievous disproportion of 1831 Chinese males to 107 Chinese females! This is not action in any beneficent direction, but is simply reaction, and is a mere expediency designed to subserve a particular industry; therefore we look in vain for any commencement of a policy that has in view national recuperation.

 The increase of males, especially when we have reason to believe that they are utterly unchaste in character, must aggravate still more the sterility of Hawaiian women, and so tend to increase the rate of deterioration of Your Majesty’s Hawaiian subjects. The rate of decrease has been for some time past a little over one thousand a year;—and here we solemnly appeal to Your Majesty to pause and consider,—that at a period which may come within the limit of your own life-time, the decline of your people may have reached that point when not only will the autonomy of the country be considered inconsistent with the paucity of its numbers, but all hope of the preservation of the Hawaiian race and name will have passed away.

 It may be said that as production of material for commerce has not declined but rather increased in the kingdom, and may not be diminished in succeeding years, that consequently revenue will be forthcoming and our political order and autonomy may still go on. But should your people continue to decline, the consideration of your Majesty as the chief of an independent tribe of people must in such event be so far diminished, that the present courtesy of foreign recognition will be withdrawn.

We would avert this issue. We. O king, who hoped and strove for your accession to the Hawaiian throne, would hope and strive again as far as it may be proper for us, to see you continuing to fill it with increasing honor to your person and blessing to your people. And therefore we would appeal to you in the behalf of your declining race, in the cause of humanity, and in the name of all generous hearts and philanthropic souls throughout the world who would glory in the cause of the preservation of a declining people, that your Majesty will determine conjointly with able and faithful men in your kingdom, to inititate measures and to carry out a policy that will set aside all other minor considerations of state, and will look singly to the repeopling of your dominions, and to the preservation of your nation’s independence. And let this new departure of your kingdom begin without farther temporizing or delay.

It is for you, O, Chief, chosen to be the Sovereign and the leader of this feeble, yet most interesting nation:—it is for you, indeed, to be its political savior and its father! You are the hope of Polynesia. You are also an object of interest to humanitarians abroad in respect to the preservation of your race. upon you devolves the great mission, not only of the recuperation of your people, but the successful illustration of a tropical civilization; therefore every device and measure of Your Majesty’s Government should be directed towards the acquisition of people, and the preservation of the life of the Hawaiian State.

 Pardon us, Sire, when we say that this must be done. That is to say, the intelligence of the civilized world will require that the only ground for acquiescence in the self government of this mere nominal State will be in the earnest pursuit by its Ruler and People of a policy for self preservation, and to maintain a respectable independence. For let us say, that this is an era of great States, and consider, also, that a State like Hawaii, with a mere brigade of people, with a machinery of government so largely in excess of its needs, with an official expenditure that precludes all hope of internal improvement, and that is not at times sufficient for the preservation of its own peace, can hardly be much longer recognized among the family of nations.

Therefore, there must be a radical change in the policy of this country,—the promulgation of enlightened measures for national resuscitation, to be followed up by a persistent course of action, which shall include a determined retrenchment of expenditure throughout all the departments of government, beginning with the Crown even, whatever may be the individual loss or disappointment, until a large surplus of revenue is secured for internal improvement and the acquisition of a new people;—and to include also well devised measures for sanitary improvement and reform, and especially some well devised system of sanitary instruction for Your Majesty’s native people, so as to lead them to appreciate that a healthy body and a well ordered household will be recognized as the best and only satisfactory evidences of their newly acquired civilization.

However, it is not our purpose to dwell on any details of policy or administration, which properly belong to the high and responsible duties of Your Majesty’s Government; and we will abide in the hope that in the present exigencies of the Hawaiian State, there will not be any measure neglected, nor any talent ignored, which may be qualified in any degree to promote the repopulation of these islands, and to maintain the independent political condition of this archipelago.

But we will merely say, in passing, that the vast human hive of Asia invites us to recuperate our Asiatic and tropical population from its teeming millions. To gain an infusion of fresh blood from kindred races is a necessity for Hawaii; and we will find the consanguineous affinities we need in the over-peopled plains—of British India; in the swarming isles of the Malay Archipelago; in the noble young Empire of Japan, so youthful in its civilization, and in other countless hordes of the industrious and prolific races of the great and parent continent of the world. And we may look elsewhere, wherever we can find a people, who can see a hope in being benefitted by the favorable conditions of climate, soil, and good political order which we have to present, and who will be well suited for complete assimilation with the race that peoples this archipelago.

It is true that the peoples whom we desire and whom we must seek are controlled by governments and policies that might, at the first mention of our desire, refuse to grant us, for political considerations, the opportunity for national recuperation which we need; but a faithful and intelligent diplomacy, such as we trust Your Majesty will call into the service of the country, will take no denial, and will appeal to every influence that is calculated to finally inspire a favorable consideration of our national condition in the minds of the government of any enlightened and Christian power. And let us say here, that we would deem any one false to the best interests of this country, false to the cause of Hawaii an independence, and disloyal to Your Majesty’s Royal State and Person, who should endeavor to dissuade Your Majesty, or your government, or your people, from pursuing a determined course for the repopulation of this group of islands, with races kindred to, or having affinities with the Hawaiians, wherever they are to be found in the world.

They are to be found. And intelligence, faith, and love for this country, under such auspices as Your Majesty’s Government can devise, will bring them here. But they must be brought here wisely; in carefully considered proportions, with correct information in respect to the prospects that Hawaii can afford, and to be accompanied on their journey and on their arrival at our shores with a kindly and judicious influence, that shall induce them readily to adopt our isles as their new and beneficent home.

And to succeed in this great work of building up Hawaii, what a glory for Your Majesty, what a prosperity for the country, and what honor for all who shall labor for its success! Such a work will win the sumpathy of great and enlightened souls everywhere. Its pursuit will at once ennoble this little State;—and a success that shall at least double the population of Hawaii in the next twenty years, and make her equal to what she was when her independence was first recognized, will fully assure that independence. And then with prosperity and peace within her borders, our recuperated Hawaii will be an honor to its Ruler, and youwork of restoration of your country in the happy establishment of two people where one existed before, will reflect a glory of which the greatest monarch in the world might be proud.

And now every praying for Your Majesty’s continued prosperity and permanence on the Hawaiian Throne, we remain,

Your Majesty’s

Most Obd’t Serv’ts:

Godfrey Rhodes, A. S. Cleghorn, Walter Murray Gibson, Henry A. P. Carter, P. C. Jones jr, J. C. Glade, F. A. Schaefer, Thomas Cummins, E. P. Adams, J. B. Atherton, J. P. Cooke, B. F. Dillingham, Robert McKibbin jr, M. D., John Thomas Waterhouse, H. Dimond, H. L. Sheldon, Henry May, M. Louisson, F. B. Hutchinson, E.T. O’Halloran, A. Jaeger, B. F. Bolles, Richard F. Bickerton, John H. Paty, S. M.Damon, William G. Irwin, H. M. Stillman, F. E. Macfarlane, J. I Dowsett, H. M. Whitney, E. O. Hall, J. Bates Dickson, J. Mott Smith, H. R. Hitchcock, Walter R. Seal, J. Perry, Samuel C. Damon, H. E. McIntyre.

I fully believe in the importance of the above suggestion.

A. S. Hartwell.

“I concur in the importance of the foregoing suggestions, but the idea of Kamehameha IV was not to repopulate from abroad, but to try to stay disease by vigorous sanitary measures which he tried actively to carry out in the establishment of the Hospital and other well known sanitary measures, thus staying the decrease and inaugurating an increase by the renewed and healthy population already in the land. This was his plan and his efforts to carry it out were consistent through unsuccessful.”  S. N.Castle.

Samuel C. Allen, Mark P. Robinson, H. F. Hollister, W. N. Gay, Walter Frear, H. J. Nolte, E. Strehz, S. B. Dole, Alex Young, J. S. Smithies, J. H. Wood, W. D Alexander, Thomas Spencer, George H. Dole, Alfred Honolulu, Bishop.

Melchior Peccinini, who is able to bring in this good kingdom some very skillful workmen from Italy for the cultivation of silk, cheese, fruits, wine, &c.

Frank Brown, James Houghton.

Louis Maigret, Bishop of Arathea, Vicor Apostollic Sandwich Islands, calling to mind the words of David, “Unless the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that builds it.”

P. Modeste Faveur, Priest, Hermann Kockemangeath, Priest, T. H. Hobron, James Robinson, Gilbert Waller, D. Dole, J.H. Hyman, F. T. Lenehan, Charles Long, J. T. Waterhouse jr, T. G. Thrum, H. H. Parker, Charles Frederick Hart.

Honolulu, Feb 22d, 1876.

His Majesty was pleased to address the committee to the following effect:

Gentlemen—In reply to your valuable memorial presented tome in person by a delegation of the citizens of Honolulu, I will say that it will receive my earliest attention. The matter that you bring up in this memorial has been one of the most important questions for consideration during my reign and that of my predecessors.

I assure you, gentlemen, that I fully appreciate your zeal and patriotism, and I heartily join with you in the high aims by which you are moved, and of which the object is the good of the country.

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 3/4/1876, p. 3)


The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Volume XX, Number 36, Page 3. March 4, 1876.

Hanaiakamalama rules, 1916.


Rules and regulations bearing on Hanaiakamalama, the Nuuanu home of the late Queen Emma, were adopted at a meeting on Wednesday of the Daughters of Hawaii, which society now has charge of the home. The rules are as follows:

“1. The object of Hanaiakamalama is to preserve articles formerly owned by the late Queen Emma and such other articles of historic interest as may be give the Daughters of Hawaii for safe keeping.

“2. The building shall be open to visitors daily from 9 to 12 in the morning and from 2 to 4 in the afternoon, excepting Sunday and other days that may be designated.

“3. The house can only be used as a meeting place for the Daughters of Hawaii and cannot be engaged for any other purpose.

“4. A fee of 25 cents will be charged all visitors, members excepted.

“5. Visitors are requested not to handle or deface any article in the building.”

(Star-Bulletin, 10/19/1916, p. 3)


Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXIV, Number 7651, Page 3. October 19, 1916.

Ice and Ice Cream in Hawaii, 1869.

[Found under: “NOTES OF THE WEEK.”]

Ice and Ice Cream at all Hours.—If anyone doubts that ice can be manufactured here, he has simply to step into Mr. Bartow’s auction room, where will be found an apparatus so simple that a child can make from one to two quarts of ice (or from two to four pounds) in about half an hour. Yesterday, on the first trial, with the thermometer at about 80°, solid ice was formed, which served to make for the spectators some refreshing drink. This apparatus is a new invention, for which Mr. B. is agent, and the machines are supplied at one hundred dollars each. They are so simple and handy that they recommend themselves, and are always ready to serve the wants of those using them. From eleven to twelve o’clock to-day, Mr. B. will again demonstrate to the skeptical how easy it is to make ice when you know how. In New Orleans, ice is now regularly manufactured, by the aid of a steam engine, and supplied to customers at less than one cent a pound, while the imported article costs four cents. If its manufacture is so successful there, why may it not be introduced here on a smaller scale?

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 7/17/1869, p. 3)

Ice and Ice Cream at all Hours.

The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Volume XIV, Number 3, Page 3. July 17, 1869.

“You are not permitted to use your own judgement but are blandly told that you don’t know what you are talking about when you venture to express an opinion that is contrary to what is said to be an established fact,” Clarence E. Edwords, 1896.

The Hawaiian Situation.

They protest too much.

This is the conclusion that is reached by the careful observer who talks with the adherents of the present Government [the Provisional Government] of the Hawaiian Islands.

They seem too anxious to impress upon you the fact that it is a most serene and peaceful atmosphere. You are not permitted to use your own judgement but are blandly told that you don’t know what you are talking about when you venture to express an opinion that is contrary to what is said to be an established fact. Of course no fault can be found with such procedure. It is a part of politics. They want certain conditions to obtain and the desire is so great that by long effort to fool others the “P. G.’s” eventually fool themselves. It may seem presumptuous for one who spent but a month in the island republic to give an opinion as to the real political status of the island, but there is so much evidence obtainable that such opinion can easily be formed, even if it does happen to be against the desire of those who now hold the reins of Government.

The stranger who visits Honolulu almost immediately feels that he is surrounded by an air of uneasiness. Things evidently are not as they seem. There is an indefinable something in the atmosphere that makes one feel as if he should be watching over his shoulder. Where the impression comes from it is difficult to say, but if you will talk politics for five minutes with any resident you cannot help but notice the lowered tone of voice, the careful watch of passers-by or the graurded manner, as if there were a constant fear of spies. Nor is this noticeable alone when talking with royalists. The adherents of the Republic are just as guarded and just as careful.

It looks as if they feared a change of Government and as if their expressions might be treasured up against them.

Yet the Republicans and the papers are persistent in their declarations that the islands were never more peaceful than at present.

Perhaps this is true, but if the the present Government is not sitting over a smouldering political volcano, then the signs are wrong, and this same Government has not failed to realize this fact. Nor has it failed to prepare a soft place to light after the explosion.

What is this soft place?

When a man who had been a resident of the islands but ten months made the public announcement of a new Government, that announcement was successful because of the American Minister, who backed up the revolutionists with the force of an American warship and the naval support of the United States. Liliuokalani was dethroned and the Re-…

(Independent, 7/11/1896, p. 1)

The Hawaiian Situation.

The Independent, Volume III, Number 323, Page 1. July 11, 1896.

…public declared. It was announced to the world that the change was satisfactory to the great majority of the people of the islands, and the establishment of a new Republic in the Pacific was generally supposed to be the work of the natives, who had learned to govern themselves.

But facts are sometimes stubborn and refute false statements. The facts of the change of government are not what have been made public.

There are, in round numbers, a hundred thousand people of the Sandwich Islands. Fifty thousand are natives, thirty thousand Chinese and Japanese, nine thousand Portuguese, and eleven thousand whites of other nationality. When the men who established the provisional government broke their oath of allegiance and possessed themselves of the reins, they disfranchised all the inhabitants except the whites. They will tell you that only Japanese and Chinese were disfranchised, but by the establishment of a rigid oath of allegiance to the new government, they disfranchised the natives as well, for the native still retains enough of his primitive honor to hold himself bound by his oath, and he cannot swear that he will not try to get back that which rightly belongs to him.

The natives are not alone in their feeling of resentment at the new government. Many of the whites who have who have lived for years on the islands see how their country is being ruined by unnecessary interference, and they, too, are restive. The Portuguese have found that the change benefitted only the few who ran the machine, and they are ready to aid in bringing about a change.

The members of the present government are not as blind to the situation as they appear. When the queen was robbed of her throne and and her means of living at the same time, it would seem that common justice should have given her a pension; but the government refused to do anything of the sort. They realized, however, that they were on dangerous ground and proceeded to provide a means of safety.

The queen was imprisoned on charges of treason, and while under duress was forced to abdicate. According to the monarchical constitution the reigning soverign names his or her successor, and following this rule the queen had named her niece Princess Kaiulani, as heir to the throne. The Princess, Miss Cleghorn, is well-off in this world’s goods, yet at the same sitting of the legislature which refused to pension the queen, a bill was passed granting to the Princess Kaiulani $4,000. It was what a politician might call a very “smooth” piece of work. If abdication under duress could be held as legal, then Kaiulani is the legal sovereign of the islands. If the present government gets ousted and the monarchy re-established, Kaiulani will rule, and those who so generously donated other people’s money expect to be graciously remembered by the new queen.

In short, it is pretty well understood just now that the republican form of government under existing conditions on the Hawaiian Islands is a failure, and the men who are now at the head of the government hope, by putting Kaiulani on the throne, to save themselves and their property and avert the disaster of overthrow, which they realize is bound to come.

But they reckon without their host. The Hawaiians are not illiterate savages. Neither are they heathens. With all the boasted educational facilities of the United States the percentage of illiteracy is much higher here than on the islands. Strange as it may seem, there is but 1 percent of the natives who are illiterate. Go to the rudest hut, made of grass and occupied by fisherman, and you will find that they take and read the native paper. They not only read, but they think. They are honest and resent dishonesty in others. The natives will not be appeased by a re-establishment of the monarchy with Kaiulani on the throne. Nor would Princess Kaiulani accept the throne so long as Queen Liliuokalani is alive. The queen is still the queen to her people and they not only honor her, but love her, and treat her with as much difference and respect to-day as at any time during her reign.

 This simply means that when the change comes, and come it will as sure as the islands remain, Queen Liliuokalani will be on the throne, not through any effort of design of her own, but by the expressed will of a vast majority of the people of the islands. I say this advisedly. The queen will take no part in any attempt to recover the government. She is willing to sacrifice herself and her interests for the good of her people, but will under no consideration jeopardize the welfare of her people for her own benefit. She has persistently refused to  counsel with those who desire a change and has kept in seclusion that is painful to her friends.

Probably no woman has been more maligned than the queen. Before her overthrow her virtues and good qualities were extolled to the skies by those who lose no opportunity of slandering her in the hope of bolstering their own cause. The people of the United States have been told all sorts of malicious stories regarding the private life of the queen and she has been pictured as an untutored, uncultured, coarse woman, whose sole object in life was her personal pleasure. This is anything but the truth. She is a woman of education and refinement, every inch a queen in talk, appearance and manner. Her face, which the published pictures of her much belie, shows deep thought and delicate refinement. There is strength in every line of it and her everyday life is a counterpart of what it depicts. A member of the Episcopal church, she is a devout and sincere Christian, doing no lip service, but making her life conform to the tenets of the belief. her desire is that her people may advance and profit by the wonderful resources of the islands and reap the benefits of the improvement. In their present condition of subjection to foreign domination this is impossible as it is the policy of the Government to keep all natives from places of emolument.

The feeling of the natives could not better be illustrated than by repeating a story told me by a friend in Honolulu.

The government in its blindness to the welfare of the islands has devised registration rules and regulations that are revolting to all decent people. Among the regulations is one requiring every person on the islands to put his thumb mark on a piece of paper after the Bertillon method of identifying criminals. An old native was asked if he had registered. No. Was he going to register? No. Then he would get into trouble. What trouble? He would be fined. He had no money. Then he would be put in jail. Drawing himself up he said:

“We are all of one mind. There are not jails enough to hold us all and the government hasn’t money enough to feed us all if we go to jail.”

The thumb mark regulation will be rescinded. It cannot be enforced, especially as it applies to tourists and visitors as well as residents.

The situation in a nutshell is this: The present government is unable and cannot stand. Its adherents are hoping against hope for annexation with the United States. Failing in this they hope to place Kaiulani on the throne. Neither plan will succeed. Within two years a monarchy will be re-established and then, and not until then, will the islands progress and the people be happy and contented.

Clarence E. Edwords.
—Kansas City Journal.

(Independent, 7/11/1896, p. 4)

...public declared...

The Independent, Volume III, Number 323, Page 4. July 11, 1896.

Clarence E. Edwords and the political situation in Hawaii, 1896.

Mr. Clarence E. Edwords, who recently visited these islands, has written an unusually correct and truthful account of the present situation of Hawaiian politics, etc. which we shall take pleasure in reproducing from the Kansas City Journal in our next issue. Mr. Edwords is a distinguished politician and journalist, and was one of the delegates to the St. Louis convention. He is one of the few visitors to the islands who have sized up our true conditions, and although belonging to the Republican party, is not afraid of speaking according to his honest convictions. If other prominent republicans in the United States are as upright and sincere as Mr. Edwords the prospects for annexation are very slender indeed. The Americans are more and more coming to the conclusion that the people of Hawaii do not desire to give up their independent government, of such a form as the majority may chose, and they now finally admit that the Hawaiians are not the Stevens-Wiltze-Dole filibusters, but the native owners of the country. And they will never voluntarily consent to the hoisting of the Stars and Stripes in Hawaii.

[I will try to put up the entire Clarence E. Edwords text tomorrow!]

(Independent, 7/10/1896, p. 2)

Mr. Clarence E. Edwords...

The Independent, Volume III, Number 322, Page 2. July 10, 1896.