“American Queen”? 1917.


Clarifications by a Newspaper Writer about Her.


To “Ke Ola o Hawaii,”

Appearing in the British newspaper, The Outlook, of the other week, there were a number of awe-inspiring lines about our Queen, Liliuokalani, titled: “An American Queen.” This is how it went:

Americans sometimes forget that within one of the Territories of the United States there lives a real ex-Queen who owes the loss of her crown to the activities of American missionaries.

This Queen is, of course, Liliuokalani, of Hawaii, dethroned in the revolution of 1893. She is now a frail old lady of nearly seventy-nine years, and few but her immediate household and closest friends ever have the opportunity of meeting and talking with her.

It is interesting to record that because of one of the tragedies of the present war this aged Queen has permitted for the first time an American flag to fly over her home. The news of this incident comes to us in a letter from a correspondent in Hawaii. This correspondent writes:

It was my privilege a few days ago to attend what will possibly be the last public reception she will ever give to members of the Hawaiian Senate—some of her own race, and some sons of the missionaries who were mainly responsible for her overthrow. Although they belonged to a body absolutely democratic in form and elected by vote of the people as citizens of the United States, it was most interesting and somewhat touching to note the loyalty and love shown the aged ex-Queen: almost, one could imagine, as if she were still their reigning sovereign. Continue reading

Washington Place, 1895.

The Residence of Wasinetona Hale.

We are putting before you the picture of Washington Place on Beritania Street, Honolulu, not because it was the storage for guns and weapons for Liliuokalani, but because it is a very old building constructed in Honolulu nei. The foundation of this house was began with coral blocks by the one called Isaac Adams, for the mother of Governor Dominis, while her husband, Dominis, was sailing as captain aboard a ship from Honolulu to…


…China, trading with places of the North and then returning to Honolulu. And being that Mrs. Dominis, who accompanied her husband, fancied living here in Honolulu, and building a home here to live in, and forever more leaving her own home in the state of Massachusetts, her husband agreed to her request. It was perhaps 1842 when the foundation was laid, but it was not completed until the beginning of 1846. And on August 5, 1846, Captain Dominis left again on a ship under his leadership, but after he left Honolulu for China, there was no word that his ship landed on any dry land until this day.

Continue reading

Kahili from Washington Place to go to Hanaiakamalama, 1918.


Because Washington Place [Wakinekona Hale] will be placed under the care of Governor McCarthy, as a home for him to live in with his family, twenty-six feather standards were returned from Washington Place to the old home of Queen Emma, in the uplands of Nuuanu, under the care of the Association, the Daughters of Hawaii [Na Kaikamahine o Hawaii].

During the funeral of Queen Liliuokalani, and while her body lay in state at Kawaiahao Church and in the throne room of the palace, those kahili were something the public could visit, however, as the result of an agreement between the trustees of Queen Liliuokalani’s estate and the Association of the Daughters of Hawaii, the caring for the kahili has been transferred to the association. As has been the custom from ancient times, it was during the night that kahili of those types were moved from one place to another, and so it was that the kahili were returned in the dark of night on Sunday two weeks ago.

However, because there were not enough people to carry the kahili and march on the roads to its new home where it is hoped to be cared for, the kahili were put on cars and it was on these cars which the people who held the kahili stood.

When the cars and the kahili arrived at the entrance to the yard of the home of Queen Emma in the uplands of Nuuanu, the kahili were taken by the leaders of the Association of the Daughters of Hawaii, and its care was transferred to them.

(Kuokoa, 10/18/1918, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 42, Aoao 2. Okatoba 18, 1918.

More on Liliuokalani’s 75th birthday celebration, 1913.


BRILLIANT in every respect was the reception on Tuesday morning at Washington Place, when the world and his wife bestirred themselves to rejoice with Queen Liliuokalani to congratulate her on her seventy-fifth birthday. Hundreds of people gathered there between the hours of 11 and 12, beautifully dressed, gay, each one happy to have this opportunity of showing his or her admiration and love for the fragile little queen who once ruled so graciously over these islands. One entered the grounds of Washington Place to the step of the Royal Hawaiian Band, which played old native tunes on the lawn. Within doors one heard the haunting rhythm of native meles chanted by Hawaiian attendants. The air was filled with the fragrance of plumeria and ilima, and one felt, as one walked among palms, bowls of exotic flowers, and tall kahilis,—sentinels of a former royalty,—that one had stepped into the romantic world of the old monarchy.

The queen received with the Princess Kawananakoa. Her throne was draped with royal yellow robes and surrounded with the standards of the kingdom. The queen was dressed in gray chiffon and velvet tinged with mauve, and trimmed with a collar of rare old lace. She wore beautiful diamond jewelry, and exquisite coronet of diamond stars capping her soft gray hair. About her shoulders was the cape of royal yellow feathers.

The beautiful Princess Kawananakoa was attired in white with black chantilly lace and the royal feather lei.

The guests were presented by Mr. E. K. Lilikalani, Col. Iaukea also assisted in the reception.

Many Attended Reception

Among those who called in the morning to pay their respects to Hawaii’s former Queen were:

Governor and Mrs. Frear, Miss Virginia Frear, I. D. Canfield, Mrs. Byron Noble, Miss Doria Noble, Miss Sara Featherstone, Miss Olive Gibbs, Mrs. Clifford Morgan, Mrs. H. L. R. Grove, Miss Mabel Anderson, Mrs. Will Wayne, Mrs. Harry L. Shaw, Mrs. Riley H. Allen, Mrs. W. Southard, Miss Edna Malone, Miss Laura C. Glover, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Chillingworth, Miss Mabel Glover, Mrs. Abraham Fernandez, Mrs. Samuel Chillingworth, Mrs. Alice Hutchinson, Miss Bertha Kemp, Miss Clara Wilson, Miss Clara Brawthen, Miss Lillian Brawthen, Miss Julia Vince, Mrs. Luella Green Emmans, Miss Hannah Kaaepa Lowe, Nahea Kehokii, Mrs. E. A. McInerny, Mrs. Hoopii Oliver, Mrs. Roberta von Oellhoffan, David K. Kahaulelio, Mrs. Hanamaikai, Mrs. Goo Kim, Mrs. J. F. Mitchell, Miss E. Mitchell, Mrs. M. Oki, Miss Kauluwehi Aki, Kelii Aki, Peter Kealakaihonua, James Bishop Thomas, Miss Myra Mott-Smith, the Misses Thomas, Miss Katherine Elstone, Mrs. A. E. Murphy, Miss Thelma Murphy, Mrs. R. S. Woodford, Miss Dorcas Meyer, M. D. Jones, R. E. Berger, Mr. and Mrs. Davis Mowy, Cecil Brown, Miss Irene Dickson, Mrs. Fanny Strauch, Mr. and Mrs. R. T. Forrester, Miss M. E. Mitchell, Miss Mary Ellen Dale, Mrs. Josie Belt, Miss Whitehouse, Mrs. C. E. Sherwood, Mrs. George T. Whittemore, Mrs. Edna Paxton, Mrs. George P. Thielen, Mrs. Lorrin Andrews, Hana Kamiau Evans, Miss Mabel E. Winkley, Henry Winkley, Mrs. Carl Miltner, Miss Sadie Whitehead, Miss Ruth Whitehead, Mrs. L. F. Martin, Miss Christiana Bradley, Miss Genevieve Bradley, Mrs. E. H. Waddell, Mrs. E. M. Watson, Miss Garda Everton, Mrs. F. W. Robertson, Mr. and Mrs. Richard Weedon, Mrs. John Mather, Mrs. Charles Winne, Miss MacDonald, Mrs. Burton Huntington, Miss Katherine Winter, Mrs. H. A. Wilder, Mrs. G. H. Lamberson, Mrs. R. R. Reidford, Mrs. John Warren, Miss Hoffmann, Miss Martha Beckwith, I. F. Pearson, Mrs. Agnes Pearson, Mr. and Mrs. William Burney, Mrs. George Robbins, Miss Georgia Robbins, Master L. R. Burney, Mrs. A. S. Humphreys, Miss Katherine Burke, Mrs. Nelson Lansing, Miss Carol Tripp, Miss Lucilla, Mrs. W. H. Barick, Miss S. L. Truelson, Captain and Mrs. W. H. Johnston, Mrs. J. B. Roe, Captain and Mrs. Marquart, Lt. and Mrs. Kay, Lieut. and Mrs. Longanecker, Mrs. B. M. Allen, Mrs. V. Ward, Miss Kulumanu Ward, Miss Kathleen Ward, Mrs. J. A. Henriques, Mr. and Mrs. John Bowler, Dr. and Mrs. S. D. Barnes, Mrs. J. J. Dowling, Miss Edmundo, Mrs. E. C. Howard, Mrs. George R. Carter, G. N. Carter, Miss Alice Fryer, M. Nyder, Miss Alice E. Krupp, Miss Edith Aldrich, Mrs. H. E. Dominy, Miss Clemence Gifford, Mrs. W. L. Gifford, Mrs. Paul Pettitt, Miss Virginia Pettitt, Miss May Crosno, Miss olive Crosno, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Brown, Miss Francesca Del Mar, Mrs. A. G. Adams, Mrs. Charles D. Mueller, T. B. Stuart, Mr. and Mrs. Gerrit P. Wilder, Helen Kinau Wilder, Samuel G. Wilder, Judge and Mrs. Sanford B. Dole, Mrs. K. W. Horner, Kaakua, Mrs. Kalalewai, Mr. Kamakakekai, Kalelo Kalii, Mrs. Rogers, Mrs. Peter, Col. and Mrs. French, Mr. and Mrs. Curtis P. Iaukea, Mr. and Mrs. John Dominis, Governor John T. Baker, Mrs. M. C. Gage, Mrs. J. M. Whitenack, Miss M. J. Davis, Mrs. H. C. Ovenden, Rear Admiral C. B. T. Moore, L. M. Stevens, U. S. A.; A. G. Kannegieser, Miss Callaway, Mr. and Mrs. A. P. Taylor, Mrs. M. Baldwin, Mrs. J. W. McAllister, Dr. Lucy Moses, Miss Agnes Lenord, Miss Margaret Douglas, Mrs. Hannah Palmer, Mrs. Alice Brown, Mrs. Samuel Gordon, Mrs. Louise Ackerson, Mrs. T. M. Reed, Miss C. Reed, Mrs. Hattie Peterson, Richard Peterson, Miss H. S. Simpson, Dr. and Mrs. A. M. Brodie, Mrs. William Haley, Mrs. Caldwell, Thomas l. Massee, Mr. and Mrs. Caldwell, Thomas l. Massee, Mr. and Mrs. Carl Kaland, John Mames, Mrs. Susanna Armour, B. F. Dillingham, Mr. and Mrs. Mark A. Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Bryan, Mrs. A. H. Letson, Arnold Weibel, Judge and Mrs. Antonio Perry, Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Spahler, Miss Katie McAllister, Mrs. Henry Holmes, Miss Annie Lau, Mrs. E. L. Minel, Mrs. J. O. Wilder, Miss Daisy Wilder, Mrs. K. W. Horner, Mrs. Hannah Niauhoe, Mrs. Kuno Apa, Mrs. Andrew Brown, Mrs. D. M. Houghs, Miss Marriette Sexton, Mrs. Kate W. Cooper, Mrs. Ben Haaheo, Miss Ella Johnston, Mrs. Louie Custer, Mrs. S. M. Angus, Miss Myra Angus, Mrs. W. C. Cummings, Mrs. L. E. Edgeworth, Mrs. L. L. Hammerly, Miss V. Caesar, Mrs. A. Caesar, Mrs. Mary Boyle Riley, Mr. and Mrs. Bert Raymond, Mrs. W. D. Adams, Mrs. Walter R. Coombs, Mrs. H. W. Marvin, Mrs. G. H. Smith, Miss Marjorie Smith, Miss Olive M. L. Manermann, Miss Bernice Gustiner, Miss Georgia Armstrong, Mrs. F. T. Warinner, Miss Helen Ambrose, Mrs. Sara L. Newcomb, E. A. P. Newcomb, Dr. and Mrs. A. L. Andrews, Sarah Worth Cousens, Mrs. L. M. Cox, Mrs. D. F. Thrum, Miss Margaret Clarke, Miss Helen Alfred, Miss Mildred Horne, Miss Lydia Williamson, Perley L. Horne, Mr. and Mrs. Edward S. Hatch, Mrs. Helen Rosa, Mrs. J. H. Maby, Mrs. Katherine Winter, Miss Aimee Mossman, Miss Marie Payne, R. F. Brown, Miss Vera Layne, Mrs. Elizabeth Johnson, Miss Ruby Johnson, Mrs. A. H. Crawford, Miss Marie Schied, A. Marques, Miss Cornelia Moodley, Miss Helen Moodey, Miss Lillian Moodey, Mrs. Charles Wyman, Mrs. Gonoe, Mrs. Riorden, Mrs. Harmon Hendrick, Mrs. A. E. Minneville, Miss Harriet Grant, Miss Dorothy Guild, Miss Rae W. Kingsbury, Mrs. J. L. Coke, Mrs. Laura Kekai Kaakulou, Mrs. Waiwaiole Pau, Mrs. Piikea Mersberg, Miss May Taylor, Mrs. T. Sharp, Mrs. Carrie A. Thompson, Mrs. A. K. Shepard, Miss Emmaline Magoch, Mrs. H. Anderson, Mrs. W. P. Osbourn, B. E. Beeman, Miss Agnes Anderson, Mrs. Arthur G. Smith, Mr. and Mrs. H. M. von Holt, Miss Johnson, Mrs. Sarepta Gullick, Mrs. L. H. Auld, Miss Miriam Stacker, Arnold Weibel, Mrs. Thomas Gill, Miss kate Gill, Miss Starkey, Guy H. Buttolph, Charles D. Wright, J. McLowe, George Kaing Lowe, Captain H. Berger, Mrs. Emma Metcalf Nakuina, Emil Nahili Hutchinson, Mrs. Frances M. Coon, L. Schley Moriarity, Miss Frances Humphreys and others.

(Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/6/1913, p. 13)


Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXI, Number 6683, Page 13. September 6, 1913.

More on the Queen’s 75th birthday, 1913.



On her seventy-fifth birthday

No monarch in the wide, wide world,
Deposed or on the throne,
Can boast of the loyal subjects,
Or the faithful friends you own.

Not alone of your own dear islands,
But of every race and clime,
You have hosts of fervent admirers,
Whose love dims not with time.

May the years touch you ever so lightly,
And your life be filled with peace,
Till the One above with His heavenly love,
Bids all our troubles cease.

C. D. W.

Pretty homage was paid to Queen Liliuokalani at her Beretania street mansion this morning. It was the occasion of her seventy-fifth birthday. With those about her whom she has loved for many years, those to whom she has turned in the turbulent and calm periods of her life the beloved queen opened the doors of her home for a public reception this morning.

The band played and the people came. Scores entered her residence and greeted her. Her guests this morning are to be counted among the residents and strangers, persons of prominence and persons in the obscure paths of life, the rich and the penniless, the light and dark—all came to meet the queen, to pay their respects to her and do her homage.

Kapellmeister Berger’s band played near the door of the mansion. Mr. Lilikalani, a pictureque figure with his many medals of honor reminiscent of the days when he was the lord high chamberlain of King Kalakaua’s court, introduced the guests, while Princess Kawananakoa, wonderfully beautiful in her gown of black chantilly lace and white charmeuse with the feather lei of royalty draped about her neck, assisted the queen in receiving.

The queen filled well her part as hostess. A flush of delight was on her face as she met the many guests. The splendor of the scene surrounding her, the ferns and flowers of many colors, the royal kahilis, the emblems of a monarchy that is no more, accentuated the fragile beauty of the queen. Old age has put its mark upon her, no doubt, but it has been with a gentle touch; so gentle that the woman who celebrated her seventy-fifth birthday today feels that she will live to see many more years roll by.

It was, in all its ways, one of the prettiest receptions the queen has ever given; and it will probably be remembered when the others are not. At a little breakfast birthday party she was given at her home this morning, when a few of the persons she has known for many years, were present, it was predicted that this morning’s reception would be the most successful. Present at the breakfast were the Mesdames C. S. Holloway, C. P. Iaukea, August Ahrens and J. A. Dominis; and Col. Sam Parker and Allan Herbert.

The queen’s entire home was decorated. Flowers that truly embody the spirit of Hawaii were everywhere—ilima leis, plumaria, maile, roses, lilies, lehua, hibiscus, gorgeous bowls of them, gifts from the queen’s friends. Above the constant murmur of the throng arose the haunting chant of Hawaiian attendants, while the band played oldtime melodies on the lawn. It was an imposing sight, and truly gratifying to behold the love and esteem in which the queen is held from the busiest person of this thriving territory who took the time to go, to the veriest little waif who went to wish her well.

(Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/2/1913, p. 1)


Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXI, Number 6679, Page 1. September 2, 1913.

All of Hawaii was talking about Queen Liliuokalani’s 75th birthday, 1913.


In accordance with this day being Queen Liliuokalani’s 75th birthday, her loyal subjects and old friends under her former administration, and even those of foreign birth, on this day from 11 o’clock in the morning to 12 o’clock, for 1 hour at Washington Palace on Beretania Street, they will be given audience; and at the imperial villa on the seaside of Wakiki will be held a grand celebration.

[There were many newspapers in many languages throughout the years here in Hawaii nei. In 1913, besides Hawaiian and English, there were papers in Chinese, Korean, Portuguese, and Japanese. Perhaps for research purposes we should consider not only looking at newspapers in one language, but we should see what they were saying in newspapers of other languages as well.]

(Hawaii Hochi, 9/2/1913, p. 4)



More on Liliu’s 75th birthday, 1913.


This past Tuesday, the 2nd of September, was the birthday of Queen Liliuokalani; she has been living in this world 75 years, and she is the only reigning queen of Hawaii that has almost reached extreme age.

There was a royal audience that day as was done regularly in the years past, at her home at Washington Place [Wakinekona Hale], before noon; there were many friends and Hawaiian citizens of the queen who went to see her on that day. Princess Kawananakoa assisted her in welcoming the friends and citizens, and Colonel C. P. Iaukea introduced the friends before her, and Mr. E. K. Lilikalani escorted the malihini into the house.

The Royal Hawaiian Band [Bana Hawaii] was there entertaining the audience while they all were visiting the queen; there were many old songs, songs which the queen took great delight in while she reigned and mele that were sung in the days of King Kalakaua.

(Kuokoa, 9/5/1913, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LI, Helu 35, Aoao 2. Sepatemaba 5, 1913.

More on Liliu’s 73rd birthday celebration, 1911.


Honolulu, Sept. 2—The commemoration of Queen Liliuokalani’s birthday was held today, and according to what the Queen said to some of her friends:

“This is my seventy-third birthday, and i am in good health; i have left behind the disturbing things of this world in which we live, and have surrounded myself with many friends.”

The Queen’s health is fine indeed, and in the morning, the Band of the County [? Royal Hawaiian Band] arrived to play while she dined on breakfast until 10 a. m. Several associations arrived to giver their congratulations to the Alii; and at 11 o’clock, the procession of haole friends to see the Alii began, and this perhaps is the grandest royal audiences of haole giving their congratulations to the Queen.

The Queen was attired in a beautiful garments fitting of her stature, and attended by the Princess Kalanianaole and Mrs. Irene Holloway and Mrs. C. P. Iaukea. The place where the Queen sat was surrounded by many different kahili, and it was her steward, the Honorable C. P. Iaukea who introduced the many strangers. The Alii, the Queen, met each one who came to visit her and she placed a kind smile upon her Royal visage. When the writer for the Hoku [this newspaper, Hoku o Hawaii] appeared before the Alii, she immediately asked, “How are the famous lehua of the land, the lehua of Hilo; are the famous blossoms of the land still beautiful?”

The Queen wore a white lehua [lehua puakea] lei from Hilo, and on her Royal countenance was happiness. On that morning of her birthday, she presented the water leaping land of Waikahalulu as a Park for the public, and it will be administered for the benefit of the people.

The Hoku o Hawaii prays for the long life of the beloved Queen of Hawaii, and although she has no throne upon to rule, hers is the throne of aloha within the hearts of her loving people. May the Queen live in God.

[Unfortunately the issues of Hoku o Hawaii from 1906 to the early part of 1917 (including this article) are not available online! The more people talk about the importance of the information in the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers and the need to rescan those newspapers clearly and make them accurately searchable, the more chance there will be funding for it!]

(Hoku o Hawaii, 9/7/1911, p. 2)


Ka Hoku o Hawaii, Buke 6, Helu 18, Aoao 2. Sept. 7, 1911.

More on the Honorable Lilia Kamakaeha Paki’s marriage, 1862.

The Ones Who Were Married.

At 8 o’clock at night, on the 16th of this month, the Honorable Lilia Kamakaeha Paki was married to Adjutant General, Major John O. Dominis at Haleakala, the house of the Honorable C. R. Bishop and A. Pauahi Bishop. The ones who attended the royal bride were Elizabeth Kekaaniau Laanui and Martha Swinton; those attending the groom were the Honorable Colonel D. Kalakaua and William Allen [? William Allani] (of Kawaihae).

Present were the Chief, the King; her Highness Princess V. Kaahumanu, his Highness L. Kamehameha; the Honorable Governor Kekuanaoa; Colonel P. Y. Kekuaokalani; and the parents of the bride, and the parent and cousins of the groom.

The ones to be wed were gathered and they went out and entered the great parlor and it was there that the couple stood.

The uniting of the pair was done with much reverence, and all the proceedings of the wedding were fine, as well as with the attendants.

The Rev. C. Damon stood and began the marriage ceremony; then the ring and the marriage fee [? ka uku o ka mare ana] was given to the groom, from the groom to the bride, and from the bride to the Priest; the Priest took the fee and gave the ring once more to the groom, who put it on the brideʻs finger. When this was done, the groom was made to give his vow and then the bride. The couple were questioned, and then the two knelt down and Priest gave a prayer, and after the prayer, the Priest asked, “Who will give this woman to this man?” The Honorable C. R. Bishop stood and took the hand of the bride and gave it to the groom; the Honorable A. Pauahi Bishop, the parents of the couple and everyone else stood once more and approached. Everyone was full of joy for this beautiful wedding.

In midday of that very day, a party was given for their cortege, and all who found themselves amongst that fine gathering felt admiration.

After the marriage of the alii, the attendants returned to their sides until they reached Washington Place [Wasenetona Hale], the place of residence of the groom.

It is said that this is the second of the righteous marriages known in our tiny Kingdom, and by glancing through the gate, it is indeed righteous.

These are fine examples for those who are not married, so that the Royal family that associates with the multitudes will become numerous. There are but a few High Chiefs born of the land left, and with this marriage to a haole Royal one, it is hoped that the Royal couple live righteously along with the prayer that they bear good fruit of the sacred descent of the line of Heulu.

[Does anyone know if Pauahi had a name that started with an "A."? For some reason she is here twice referred to as A. Pauahi Bihopa.]

(Hoku o ka Pakipika, 9/18/1862, p. 2)

Na mea Mare.

Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika Buke I, Helu 52, Aoao 2. Sepatemaba 18, 1862.

Queen Liliuokalani birthday celebration, 1911.

Birthday of Liliu.

On this past Saturday, September 2, it was the birthday of Queen Liliuokalani, and a royal audience was held midday of that day between 11 a. m. and 1 p. m. in the afternoon.

At 8 a. m. in the morning of this Saturday, the Royal Hawaiian Band [Bana Hawaii] appeared at Washington Place [Wakinekona Home] and played Hawaiian songs which were composed by the alii during the Monarchy of Hawaii nei, and some of these songs were composed by Queen Liliuokalani. The Royal Hawaiian Band played for an hour in the morning to commemorate the birthday of Liliu at Washington Place, and they played once again from 11 midday to 1 in the afternoon.

At 11, the public was allowed to come and see the alii. The Kalama Society, Kaahumanu Society, and Kauikeaouli Society arrived to see the Queen.

The interior of Washington Place was decorated with kahili, just as during the era when the alii ruled—it was beautiful and awe inspiring to see that morning. The Queen sat upon her cotton chair [noho pulu], with two boys behind her chair, holding long kahili, with ahuula upon their shoulders. The Princess Kawananakoa was on the Queen’s right, and Colonel Iaukea was on her left, and he was the one who introduced the Queen to the malihini and to the townspeople. There also, were the heads of the Territory, County, and Federal government. There were many distinguished people of this town who went to see the alii, and by the looks of it, almost one thousand people came during this royal audience.

What shocked this reporter on that morning, was that two-thirds of the people who went to give their congratulations on the birthday of the Queen were malihini and haole. As for the true Hawaiians, only but a few went to see the alii. Reflecting back in time, and seeing Liliu in her finery, i am lulled into recalling the days when Hawaiians were proud upon the soil of their native land.

(Kuokoa Home Rula, 9/8/1911, p. 4)

ka La Hanau o Liliu.

Kuokoa Home Rula, Buke IX, Helu 36, Aoao 4. Sepatemaba 8, 1911.