The Hawaiian Archipelago.
Outside of the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Lanai, Molokai, Kahoolawe, Niihau, Lehua and Kaula, that we are used to seeing as a part of what in Hawaiian is called “Ko Hawaii Pae Aina,” [The Hawaiian Archipelago], there are other islands included in that group.
The island of Nihoa (Bird Island) became part of Hawaii nei in 1822. This “annexation” [“hoohui aina”] was carried out by Kuhina Kaahumanu. “Keolaloa” (Capt. William Sumner) was the captain of the ship sent to carryout this task.
The island of Laysan became a Hawaiian territory [kalana aina Hawaii] on the 1st of May, 1857, and on the 10th in that same year, the island of Lisianski was joined into the Nation of Kamehameha by Captain Keoni Peti (John Paty).
On the 15th of April, 1862, the island of Palmyra [Palamira] added by Captain Zenas Bent, and it was proclaimed a Hawaiian territory [panalaau] during the period when Kamehameha IV was on throne, according to the Government announcement published in the Polynesian Newspaper on June 21, 1862.
In the month of September 20, 1886, the low island [mokupuni Pa-pa-pa] (Ocean Island) became Hawaii’s because of a Governmental proclamation of Colonel J. H. Boyd, who was authorized to carry this out during the reign of Kalakaua.
Necker Island was included to the Hawaiian nation on the 27th of May, 1894, by Captain James A. King, representing the Hawaiian Nation.
The low island [mokupuni Pa-pa-pa] called “French Frigate Shoal,” was the last island added to Hawaii nei, on the 13th of July, 1895. And it was Captain James A. King who carried out this annexation.
It is said that the island of Gardner, Mara, or the Moro Atoll, the Pearl Island and Hermes Atoll, the Ridge of Gambia, and Johnston Island (and Cornwallis perhaps) became part of the Hawaiian Nation.
In the archives of the Foreign Affairs Office, you can find a treaty made between the Hon. Charles St. Julien, the Commissioner and Government and Commercial Agent for the King of the Hawaiian Islands, and John Webster, Esq., the Head and Owner of the Archipelago known as Stewarts Islands (near the Solomon Islands), and in that treaty, those islands were annexed to the Hawaiian Nation, pending the approval of the King. These are the names of these islands: Ihikaiana, Te Parena, Taore, Matua, Awi and Matua Ivoto.
This treaty was done in Sydney [Kikane] on the 10th of February, 1855, however, there is no history showing that this treaty was approved.
[It is perhaps important to note that immediately following this in the Kuokoa is an article on why it is important for the United States to annex Hawaii. This article appears in English in Thrums Annual of 1898 as “Islands Comprising the Hawaiian Republic”.
(Kuokoa, 11/26/1897, p. 2)