Ancient matters of Hawaii nei.
Those who have knowledge of what the people of Hawaii were like in the old days are disappearing, and if these things are not written down and saved, the knowledge will be gone for good. Therefore I encourage those who know to write it down at once and make it known, so that those of the future generations will know what their kupuna were like. Here below are some ancient things to search out and to publish.
1. The old gods of Hawaii nei. Kane, Kaneloa, Kukaili, Pele, Lono, Milu, Hiiaka, Pepekauila [Kapepeekauila], Keawenuikauohilo, the travelling of the gods at night, the spirits that are sent, the aumakua, the family gods [kumupaa], the ghosts [lapu].
2. The heads of religion. The kahunapule, the prophets [kaula], the seers [kilo], supernatural ones [kupua]. 3. Sacred things. The heiau, the dala [maybe this was supposed to be “lele,” sacrificial stand], altar [kuahu], offerings [mohai]. 4. Kapu. 5. Religious activities.
1. Worship in appeasing of the gods.
2. Worship in medicine.
3. Worship in going fishing.
4. Worship in going to war.
5. Worship in the birth of a child.
6. Worship in burying of a corpse.
7. Worship in going on long travels.
8. Worship in sorcery.
6. Entertainment. 1. Feasting [ahaaina]. 2. Hula and haa. 3. Gambling [pili waiwai]. 4. Surfing [heenalu]. 5. Leaping into bodies of water [lelekawa]. 6. Sliding [holua]. 7. Long-distance running [kukini]. 8. Hand-to-hand combat [mokomoko].
7. Truly evil things. 1. Theft [aihue], Robbery [powa], 3. Bone breaking [lua]. 4. Abortion. 5. Cannibalism.
8. Education. 1. Genealogy [kuauhau]. 2. History [moolelo]. Tales [kaao]. 4. Composition of poetry and poetry [haku mele a me na mele].
9. Sicknesses and epidemics [mai a me na ahulau].
10. Occupations [oihana]. 1. Farming [mahiai]. 2. Fishing [lawaia]. 3. Kapa making [kukukapa]. 4. Canoe carving [kalai ana i na waa]. 5. House building [kukulu hale ana].
11. Ranks of men. 1. Alii. 2. Makaainana. 3. Farmer [lopa]. 4. Commoners [hu]. 5. Outcasts [kauwa].
12. Betrothal and “marriage” [hoopalau me ka hoao ana].
Those are some of the ancient matters that should be researched and published, and perhaps there are others; and if some of our readers know of other important things remaining, he should say what they are.
By Huliikahiko [“Searcher of old things”].
[This article precedes the series called “Hoomana Kahiko,” a compilation of descriptions of religion and various traditions which dealt with the questions above, and which were written by the students of the Wailuku Theological School under W. P. Alexander. It begins in the newspaper Kuokoa on 1/5/1865 (missing issue), and concludes on 12/30/1865. For more on this series of articles, see “Essays upon Ancient Hawaiian Religion and Sorcery by Nineteenth-Century Seminarists” by Bacil F. Kirtley and Esther T. Mookini, found in The Hawaiian Journal of History, Volume 13, 1979.]
(Kuokoa, 12/3/1864, p. 3)