Names of the stevedores who participate in Queen Liliuokalani’s funeral, 1917.


Poolas Pay Last Tribute to Queen in Unique Observance, Carrying Out Customs of Other Days—Lighted Kukui Nut Torches Emblematic of Liliuokalani’s Dynasty

HOMAGE as in the days of ancient Hawaii was done to their dead ruler by the “poolas” or stevedores of Honolulu as their part in the long ceremonial procession on Sunday—204 of them.

The poolas, untied as a craft into a well-knit society, paid their tribute to Liliuokalani as along crowded streets they drew the great catafalque bearing the casket in which reposed the body. No section of the long parade was more impressive than this.

With solemn tread stevedores marched through the streets of Honolulu to the Royal Mausoleum, Nuuanu street, drawing by long ropes the somber catafalque upon which rested the handsome koa coffin. It was a unique, fitting portion of the elaborate ceremonies attending the burial of the queen. The poolas in the lines were all Hawaiians, members of that sturdy race from which Liliuokalani sprung.

The great body of men was in perfect order at all times. The poolas were dressed in white and each wore a small cape of red yellow, colors of the organization that loads and unloads the steamers that touch here. The leaders wore long cloaks. Samuel Kipi was in charge of the poolas, and was assisted by Joseph Pua, John Lono, Benjamin Ross, Hookani, Kapele Napua, Kawaipaoa, John Kapono, Jr., and David B. Kekuewa.

Two long lines of ropes, bound with black and white ribbon, formed the harness with which the poolas drew the catafalque. Just before the coffin was removed from the throne room, the poolas formed a double line in front of the catafalque which reached almost to the makai entrance to the Palace grounds, each man taking hold of the rope. as the coffin was carried down the steps, the poolas removed their hats and stood at attention, facing the catafalque. After the ceremonies at the entrance to the palace were over, they began their steady march to the mausoleum, slowly drawing the catafalque after them.

The catafalque, draped in black, and trimmed with narrow lines of white, rolled slowly behind the marchers. A large canopy of black was supported by four posts, and at the four corners, on top, were black plumes. Before the poolas moved out of the palace grounds, torches of kukui nuts, bound in ti-leaves, were lighted, a final honor to the royal dead.

Following is a list of the poolas who conveyed the remains of the queen to their final resting place:

Mookini, Polokami, Henry Mahoe, J. Manu, Hoomanawanui, J. Kekuku, Sam Hakuole, Robert Kauhane, Moses Keala, D. Kali, K. Kamaka, J. Moolina, John Hali, Kila, Lui Pawaa, Ben Kaleo, Kalama Opio, William Watson, Jr., Frank Kiekie, John Lono, Lai Pila, Joseph Haili, H. Halemano, Herring, Keliikipi, G. M. Napoleon, James Kekino, William Swain, Kalani Isaac, Jr., Jose Salona, J. M. Kipi, William Malina, G. Kailihou, Makekau, S. Kahololio, Woodward, J. Kamaka, P. Keawehaku, Joe Keola, John Ena, John Manono, Victor K. Kilia, Charles Panui, Kuhiakau, John Neoliwa, James Spencer, James Nuuhiwa, E. Kaai, John Maielua, Sam Peter, Joe Kapua, Pukani Maui, Koikoi Opio, David Poepoe, William Kamakee, Albert Kupo, George Kaili, Sam Lili, J. K. Kuulei, Tom Bright, Kaaha Kuili, J. Enos, G. Halemano, John Kanalu, D. Kuhiau, G. Apiki, Kawaiaea, S. Akana, John Ku, H. Iona, Tom Kepane, Kukila, M. Enos, J. Nawai, W. Lui, C. Kaninau, Needham, Kaowaka, W. Harrison, S. Kalauao, M. Koili, L. Kia, Pokai, M. Kalahiwa, McShane, B. Purdy, A. Kaleikini, J. Kaluna, D. Kalauawa, Pooloa, D. Kahalewai, John Kamaka, Kukaulaili, Poai Kekuaana, William Kaka, B. Holokai, J. Kamai, D. Kamaka, M. Naone, Pua Ku, John Kamao, Kahieki, John Halemano, Niauhoe, D. Palau, Keliinoi, H. Keanui, Kalaluhi, Sam Peahi, Nahuina, Iopa, Kealoha, Thomas F. Wond, W. Jury, J. Kailihiwa, Robert Jury, John Philips, John Kaimipau, Kawanui, Hoonuu, W. Pualoa, Alohikea, E. Mohia, E. Lono, C. Papaiku, Dan Kekaulike, W. Simpson, D. Kaai, Sam Pali, D. Kaaihue, Moke, Makuku, J. Keahi, Sam Iaea, Kamaka, Sam Kipi, De La Cruz, David Kuuku, K. Napua, J. Alohikea, Koawane, Maemae, S. Levi, Sam Kaili, Joe Kekaula, Liftee, Kupihea, Halelaau, John Kauinana, Kahan, Aika, E. D. Ele, Pukui, Kawaipaoa, Ben Ross, P. K. Kapu, D. Lonohiwa, W. Kalimahana, W. Kealakai, J. H. H. Kealakai, George Hookano, Sam Ahia, John Lino, Jack Kamaka, M. Correa, Nahinu, M. Miguel, H. Aki, D. Kekuewa, Waiolama, Joe Pawaa, Joseph Hale, Pohau, Charles Aniu, John Kauwa, Laniawe, Nunu, Sam Kaakau, William Hemekela, Maui, Kuaana, Waha, Kelli, A. Paaluhi, William Kahala, Kikaukahi, Ben Kekoa, Kamaki Pila, Pauoa, Kapono, Keawe Loloaniho, Kune Elua, John Kalimapehu, John Brown, Charles Honolii, James Kaai, Joseph Lui, H. Williams, Alex. Robertson, John King, Dick Helenihi, Naauao, Kainoa, Hanape.

(Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 11/19/1917, p. 7)


Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXV, Number 7988, Page 7. November 19, 1917.

Poi and Kalo and a self sufficient Hawaii, 1915.


It would appear that the days are numbered, and 5 pounds of poi will go for a quarter, that is five cents per pound. This rise in price of poi is due to the lack of kalo, and perhaps because Hawaiians just don’t care to plant kalo in their fields.

These days in Honolulu, there are but few places that plant kalo. Places that loi kalo were seen are now dried out because the lands were accrued by other groups of people, and they dried the fields out; whereas it would be more beneficial if those back turners continued the planting of kalo. It has been almost two years since this spokesperson [the newspaper Ke Aloha Aina] first advised those with lands to farm them, for the time will come when there will be food shortages, at that time, America will declare war against Germany, which will intensify the problem, and that time we spoke of has come indeed. As proof of what we say, look to the issues of A. D. 1915–16, and you will find our words of advice, strongly encouraging Hawaiians to plant kalo and other crops, because the time will come when there will be hardships, and it will come, without fail.

Something terribly astonishing to us is that it as if kalo is being made into poi outside of Hawaii, for the cost is rising like goods imported here.

Why is this so? Because there is so little kalo being farmed, and there are a lot of people eating poi. These days, there are other ethnicities eating poi because their staples are expensive, and therefore, many people are eating poi and not much kalo is being planted.

We give our appreciation to the poi association of the stevedores which took some kalo lands and leased them out long term to plant kalo to supply their outlets at the markets and feed the poi-eating public.

Probably the public doesn’t realize that these days there is a poi shortage; maybe they continue to assume that poi is as usual. No! There is less poi now; six and a half pounds for a quarter, and some weeks it is just six pounds and sometimes five pounds for a quarter, which is five cents per pound.

So all you people with some kalo land, you should plant a lot of kalo and pull up well-developed corms when the time is right. Neglect during the day will leave you without. Work while the sun is up.

(Aloha Aina, 9/7/1917, p. 4)


Ke Aloha Aina, Buke XXII, Helu 36, Aoao 4. Sepatemaba 7, 1917.