John L. Stevens represents Hawaii in America, 1893.

STEVENS AND HAWAII.

The Ex-Minister Points Out the Advantage of Annexation.

AMERICAN INTEREST LEAD

An Address Before San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, Which Passes Resolution Favoring Annexation.

San Francisco, June 1.—Hon. John L. Stevens, ex-United States minister at Hawaii, addressed the Chamber of Commerce of this city to-day on the subject of “Hawaiian Affairs and Their Relation to the Interest of the United States.” A large number of businessmen were present and gave the speaker an appreciative reception. At the close of the address a resolution was adopted favoring the speedy annexation of the islands. Mr. Stevens, in relating his first impressions upon the islands, said he had not been long in Honolulu before he perceived how thoroughly an American city it was and how predominating were all American interests on the islands. Continuing he said:

He had found an intelligent body of citizens of American and European origin supporting a semi-barbaric monarchy, dead in everything but its vices; coarsely luxuriant in its tastes and wishes and spreading social and political demoralization througout the island.

The speaker then related several incidents in the career of the deposed queen, and charges her not only with personal immorality, but also with having by unconstitutional and arbitrary methods, secured the adoption of certain measures, such as the opium and lottery bills, and recited her attempt to promulgate a new constitution, which finally aroused the respectable element of the community to action. Mr. Stevens then reviewed in detail the circumstances of the revolution and overthrow of the queen last January, and the subsequent establishment of the provisional government. He spoke of the danger of riot and incendiarism at the time of the revolution, the fact that there was no adequate police power in Honolulu, and that an appeal was accordingly made for the landing of men from the United States ship Boston. In this connection, Mr. Stevens said in part:

Under the diplomatic and naval rules, the United States minister and naval commander would have shamefully ignored their duty had they not landed men from the Boston for the security of American life and property and the maintenance of public order, even had the committee of public safety not requested the United States to do so. The Boston’s men stepped not an inch from the line of duty; they never lifted a finger in aid of the fallen monarchy on the rising of the provisional government and all assertions to the contrary, by whomsoever uttered, are audacious falsehoods.

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Be vigilant. Just because someone claims to represent you, does that necessarily mean it is so? 1893 / timeless.

HOW IS IT POSSIBLE?

Yes, how can Stevens [John L. Stevens] make himself so brazen and say that his appearance, his voice, and his words—that they represent the Hawaiian people, all the while that that Stevens is in the United States? This is something that is appalling to us, but there are many things that will shock someone, and at times we just want to suppress that feeling, but we cannot, because of how blatant the examples. However, while we may be in shock, the shock of Thurston and his group will greatly surpass this, when they realize that they  met up with the spirit of the waters of Eleile that turn back ti leaves,* and they will realize that the sentiment of the Americans will turn back as well when they hear the truth.

[Many times people don’t pay attention to what is happening outside their own community because they have a job to do, or they have children to care for, or this, or that. Let us be vigilant during these upcoming years. The future generations deserve our attention.]

* See Mary Kawena Pukui’s ʻŌlelo Noʻeau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Saying, #1649 about the current in the pool of Eleile which turns back stalks of ti leaves thrown into it by visitors.

(Hawaii Holomua, 2/15/1893, p. 2)

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Hawaii Holomua, Buke III, Helu 160, Aoao 2. Feberuari 15, 1893.

Mele for the Claudine, the vessel that carried the commission of annexationists to Washington DC, 1893.

KELAUDINA SONG.

Kaulana mai nei Kelaudina
Ahailono o ka poe pakaha
Nau i lawe aku na komisina
O ke aupuni kuloko o Hawaii
Hopuhopualulu e ka hele’na
A na elele o ua aupuni nei
E ake ana e hookoia
Ka iini pakaha aina
Halawai aku nei lakou
Me kahi paele a Kalivilana Continue reading

More on the landing of the Boston, 1893.

Of What Are They Afraid?

Editor Bulletin:—

The Advertiser this morning says: “The landing of the troops from the Boston furnishes a guarantee that the persons and property of American citizens will be safe from violence, etc.” What are those who claim to be American citizens afraid of? From what quarter is violence expected? None whatever, except like Banquo’s ghost,¹ from the “deep shadows of cowardly and guilty consciences.” It would be well under present circumstances, for the Advertiser to come forward and state to the public who were the ones that forced the late King at the point of the bayonet to break his oath and forswear the late constitution that he had sworn to uphold?

An American.

¹Reference to Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

(Daily Bulletin, 1/17/1893, p. 3)

DailyBulletin_1_17_1893_3

The Daily Bulletin, Volume V, Number 626, Page 3. January 17, 1893.

 

 

Invasion, 1893.

The American Troops Landed.

Without knowledge of the Government, and with agreement from the American Minister [Stevens] not to land the troops from the warship while the Government is prepared to keep peace; the American Minister nonetheless ordered the troops of the Boston to be  put in service. This would appear as if it is an attack, and should the government [provisional government] listen to the truth of these actions by its official, this will be something that it will condemn.

(Leo o ka Lahui, 1/17/1893, p. 2)

LeookaLahui_1_17_1893_2

Ka Leo o ka Lahui, Buke II, Helu 624, Aoao 2. Ianuari 17, 1893.

The U. S. S. Boston, John L. Stevens, and the Hawaiian flag, 1893.

PROTECTORATE.

At nine o’clock this morning, and since the editorial matter of The Liberal was in type, the United States flag was hoisted upon the Capitol by Captain Wiltse of the U. S. S. Boston and a United States Protectorate was proclaimed over the Hawaiian Islands in the name of the American Government, pending negotiations now going on at Washington. The troops saluted the American flag first and immediately thereafter faced about and saluted the Hawaiian flag. The following is the text of the proclamation:

TO THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE.

At the request of the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands, I hereby, in the name of the United States of America, assume the protection of the Hawaiian Islands for the protection of life and property, and occupation of the public buildings and Hawaiian soil, so far as may be necessary for the purpose of specified, but not interfering with the administration of public affairs by the Provisional Government.

This action is taken pending, and subject to, negotiations at Washington.

John L. Stevens,

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States.

United States Legation, February 1, 1893.

Approved and executed by

G. C. Wiltse, Captain U. S. N.

Commanding the United States Ship “Boston.”

(Liberal, 2/1/1893, p. 2)

PROTECTORATE.

The Liberal, Volume I, Number 41, Page 2. February 1, 1893.

Senator John T. Morgan replies, 1897.

MORGAN’S REPLY.

The Senator From Alabama Answers J. K. Kaulia’s Open Letter.

He Defends the Position of Himself and the Annexationists.

Honolulu, Oct. 12, 1897.

Mr. James K. Kaulia,

Dear Sir,—A pressure of engagements has necessarily delayed an answer to your open letter.

Having no disposition to interfere in Hawaiian affairs or to attempt to influence the opinions of the Hawaiians on the subject of annexation to the United States, or to any country, I do not wish to enter upon a discussion, which you invite, as to any views I have heretofore expressed on that subject.

A preference is quite a different matter from an alternative, when the latter is forced upon us by circumstances beyond our control. As my government has not submitted to a vote of our people, the question of our willingness to accept the annexation of Hawaii, and has not a proceeding so unusual and so idle, I have not thought it necessary, or fair, that this question should be submitted to a popular vote in Hawaii, Your Constitution provides for annexation without such a vote. But I would regret to have you feel that I am indifferent to the wishes of your people on this subject; I wish them to feel that our motives are honorable; that our sentiments are only those of sincere regard for their happiness, and that our course towards them will be wise and just.

I have said in the Senate that if I was a Hawaiian citizen I would not prefer annexation to any country. If I were a Cuban I would have the same preference for a separate and independent Republic, won by Cuban blood. This is in the sense of national pride, which must always yield to national safety.

But the present condition of Cuba and of Hawaii does not admit of such a preference.

Cuba has found that she must be a republic in order to escape the terrors of foreign monarchial rule, and Hawaii must also remain a republic to avoid sinking into a like condition.

If Hawaii relapses into monarchy she will be cut off from any reliance on the protection of the United States. In that event we could not accept her into our Union, nor could we, in any event, accept Hawaii as a dependency, or colony. We have no such powers under our Constitution.

When the alternative is presented as it is, whether I would prefer annexation to the United States rather than have Hawaii sink into a petty monarchy, to be ruled by some foreign country, I would prefer to save the liberties of the people, through annexation, to a tawdry show of royalty by a few persons set in authority over them, who would be compelled to do the bidding of some monarch. In the American Union Hawaii would be really independent, and would be forever safe against any foreign interference. She would not be smothered with Asiatic immigrants, nor would she ever become a sugar colony of a monarch, as Cuba is, to be robbed and oppressed by non-resident nabobs, and then flayed alive on the first utterance of a plea or protest in the name of humanity. Finding that it is necessary to act in order to meet the clandestine movements of some citizens and others who are subjects of foreign monarchies, for the destruction of republican government in Hawaii, I would prefer annexation to the United States, rather than risk the danger of having to fight for the life of the country, as Cuba is forced to do.

When Japau wished to annex Formosa to her Empire, she did not consult the Chinese there, to ascertain their wishes. When by a process of emigration Japan has filled these islands with her people, who still owe allegiance to the Emperor, she will ask no questions of the Hawaiians whether they wish to become Japanese subjects; nor will your people be able to resist this quiet process of absorption, you will sink, as the rains sink into the thirsty soil.

If your people were all united in their preference for republican government, I would, if I were a citizen of Hawaii, now prefer her separate independence, as a matter of pride, yet I remember how costly, to Ireland, a like feeling has been, and how it has lost to her people all hope of separate national independence, but the Hawaiian Islands are not independent of fate, however much their native people may desire a separate government. If I belonged to that race I would sacrifice any preference, either of pride or convenience, rather than be suffocated with people who have nothing in common with them in religion, or in their ideas of government. I would unite with the American people in their support of free, constitutional government rather than see any republic relapse into a monarchy, in this Western Hemisphere.

Very respectfully,

John T. Morgan.

(Independent, 10/16/1897, p. 3)

MORGAN'S REPLY.

The Independent, Volume V, Number 716, Page 3. October 16, 1897.