Traditional place names and the Daughters of Hawaii, 1918.


This past Wednesday the Daughters of Hawaii [Ahahui o na Kaikamahine] held a meeting at the home of Queen Emma in the uplands of Nuuanu, known by all by the name Hanaiakamalama, the old home of Kamehameha IV and his queen; and at that meeting it was decided that the calling of many places in Honolulu nei by their Hawaiian names will be preserved forever.

To carry out this endeavor, the organization decided to continue calling the name “Leahi,” and not Diamond Head, as it is being called now, and so too with other names that have been changed; they will be returned to their old names that Hawaiians are familiar with.

At that meeting several things were read pertaining to the life of Queen Liliuokalani  by Mrs. Lahilahi Web, a speech by A. F. Knudsen, and Representative Kuhio, along with the singing of some old mele, just as if they were recreating memories of familiar deeds from the time of Queen Emma in that home.

For the treasury of the Red Cross, Mr. A. F. Knudsen will give a speech specifically pertaining to Hawaii nei of the olden days, at Memorial Hall of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association [Papa Hawaii], at eight o’clock on the evening of this Saturday, May 4, under the direction of the Daughters of Hawaii nei.

The entrance will be half price to go and listen to the speech and for all activities that will be put on, and being that it is a benefit for the Red Cross, and that it is beneficial to listen to this history pertaining to the Hawaiian lahui, all the people should go to hear his speech so that the new generations can get some education.

Mr. Knudsen was born on Kauai and went around amongst the Hawaiian children, and met the old people, and listened to the old stories of Hawaii nei; and because of this, the stories he tells that night will be something totally new for Hawaiians of today, the people who know hardly any of the stories of their lahui and their land.

(Kuokoa, 5/3/1918, p. 4)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 18, Aoao 4. Mei 3, 1918.

Petition from Koloa, Kauai, supporting King Kalakaua, 1880.

His Most Highness King D. Kalakaua, the Moi of the Hawaiian Archipelago.

O Father, Give us heed.

We are Your own citizens, named below, from the District of Koloa, Island of Kauai.

We humbly ask before Your Most Highness, while approving of all which You have done for the rights and the benefits of Your Nation. Just as the Royal rights that You have.

And we truthfully state that we do not join with the white skins [ili keokeo] who oppose You and Your Ministers that You rightly selected, as per your power as King and Father of Your Lahui. And we thank the Heavens.

“Long Live the King in God!
Long Live your Kingdom!”

Koloa, Kauai, Sept. 17, 1880.

Poikauahi,  H. Kanakaole,
Kaili,  Pohihi,
Iapeka,  Kaapanui,
W. Brown,  A. Kawai,
J. W. Puni,  Hili,
Kanakaole,  Palakamaia,
Kamakee,  Pakaua,
Kaili,  Noa,
Uilama,  Kamale,
Kamaka,  Kauapo,
Kehau,  Hanaole,
Kaluna,  Kuike,
Paahao,  Kapo,
J. W. Keliinui,  Kuai,
Makamaka,  Apelahama,
Jimo Alapai,  Daniela,
Kahoolewa,  Nao,
Makole,  Molokoa,
Kahiko,  Opeka,
Kale Molohu,  K. L. Pilipo,
Makia,  Michael Luhau,
P. Kamaka,  Mookini,
Makaole,  P. Kaluna,
Hoopii,  T. Naapuelua,
Hapaumi,  Kalawaia,
Keliinui,  D. Kaioike,
Haumea,  Keonipahia,
Kainokane,  Kane,
Kanaana,  Kalonui,
Kolona,  J. K. Luka,
Eke,  Naholoaa,
Ohule,  T. Kalaluhi,
Kaukuna,  J. B. Kaheleloa,
Moke,  W. H. Kekahimoku,
Mahina,  Kawahineaea,
Keo,  Lihilihi 2,
Kimo,  Hanaole,
Hoolaumakani,  J. K. Pelekai,
Minamina,  Moke,
Kimokeo,  H. Mokuhiwa,
Kuihonua,  H. Nakapaahu,
Kuakini,  A. K. Nahoa,

[This newspaper is not available online as of yet. Hopefully a clear copy will be put up soon. Some of the names in this image are difficult to decipher.]

(Elele Poakolu, 9/29/1880, p. 3)

Mea Kiekie Loa King D. Kalakaua, ka Moi o ko Hawaii Pae Aina.

Ka Elele Poakolu, Buke I, Helu 4, Aoao 3. Sepatemaba 29, 1880.

“Laksamana” in English by Walter Murray Gibson, 1882.






In the year 1873, whilst publishing a small bilingual sheet, the Nuhou, in the English and Hawaiian languages, I was urged by Hawaiian friends to write a story about my experience in Malaysia, and illustrative of Malay manners and customs. I published some incidents of travel in the Island of Sumatra, and as I introduced some fragments of the legendary stories of the Malays, especially in relation to the renowned hero Laksamana, of Malay romance, I was pressed and tempted to expand this subject, drawing on my imagination, as well as on the traditions of the Malays and Javanese to which I had listened, and the result was that the story of “Laksamana” was continued in the Nuhou in the Hawaiian language, in a succession of weekly issues for a space of six months, and yet when the Nuhou had terminated its career, the story like those of Scheheserade [Scheherazade of One Thousand and One Nights], was left unfinished.

When the editor of the Nuhou, and author of Laksamana, commenced the publication of the Elele Poakolu in 1880, the Hawaiians very generally expressed a wish that the story of Laksamana should be continued; for the memory of the interest that it had awakened in 1873 had not abated in Hawaiian minds, and the author resumed the story in the Elele, publishing a revised edition of the Nuhou series of Laksamana legends.

This is a story based upon legends, designed for the entertainment of young and unsophisticated minds. It is a romance of the mythic age of Malaysia and originating in the poetic invention of Asia. Laksamana, the brother of the demi-god Rama, is a hero of the great Hindoo [Hindu] poem the “Ramayana,” and in a later age appears in the Javanese epic, the “Bratayuda.” The mythic Prince of the Indian epopee gas given the name that is so prominent in Malay story, but there was, according to widespread tradition, an actual Malay hero to whom was given the name of Laksamana, as a title, as certain potentates of Europe are styled Cæsars—deriving their title from the name of the great Roman who founded imperialism. Laksamana has long been a naval title in Malaysia, being the titular designation of an admiral, or commander of a fleet of war prahus.

Laksamana the hero is frequently mentioned in Malay song and story at this day, and he appears sometimes a mythic hero working wonders and sometimes a historic personage and the hero of Malay achievements. There is no written history, or series of stories, recording in any collective form, the myths or the achievements, and the author of this story, designed for the instruction and entertainment of native Hawaiians has had no assistance in the preparation of the romance but the memory of fragmentary legends narrated to him whilst he languished in the Prison of Weltevreden, on the island of Java, and which he arranged into this Hawaiian kaao, or romantic tale, during days of peaceful toil on the island of Lanai.

This story is now presented to the English reading public, through the columns of the Advertiser, not on account of any presumed literary merit, but because it has been thought by many friends of the author that it would be interesting to those desiring the welfare of the Hawaiian People, to know what kind of literature captivated their attention, and at the same time it was thought that the romance of Laksamana, would at least interest the juvenile, if not the more matured readers of the Advertiser.

Walter Murray Gibson.

Haleaniani, April 29, 1882.

[The actual tale starts here…

It was introduced in the Nuhou, on 10/14/1873, pp. 4–5; the translation of the tale is printed from 11/4/1873 to 4/28/1874. In the Nuhou, it actually states that the story was translated from the Malay language.]

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 4/29/1882, p. 5)


The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Volume XXVI, Number 44, Page 5. April 29, 1882.

The rest of the translation of Clarence E. Edwords, 1896.


Truthful Presentation of the Prediction that will Come True.

We are translating and printing the remainder of that letter by Clarence E. Edwords (Kalalena Edewoda), of which we translated some paragraphs earlier in the 2nd Issue of this Volume VI, on the past 13th. The places where asterisks [hoailona hoku] are inserted, were the places that we already have completed. This is how the remainder of that letter begins:

“They protest too much.

“This is the conclusion that is reached by the careful observer who talks with the adherents of the present Government [the Provisional Government] of the Hawaiian Islands.

“They seem too anxious to impress upon you the fact that it is a most serene and peaceful atmosphere (existence). You are not permitted to use your own judgement but are blandly told (as if graciously or flatteringly) that you don’t know what you are talking about when you venture to express an opinion that is contrary to what is said to be an established fact. Of course no fault can be found with such procedure. It is a part of politics. They want certain conditions to obtain and the desire is so great that by long effort to fool others the “P. G.’s” eventually fool themselves. It may seem presumptuous for one who spent but a month in the island republic to give an opinion as to the real political status of the island, but there is so much evidence obtainable that such opinion can easily be formed, even if it does happen to be against the desire of those who now hold the reins of Government.

“The stranger who visits Honolulu almost immediately feels that he is surrounded by an air of uneasiness. Things evidently are not as they seem. There is an indefinable something in the atmosphere that makes one feel as if he should be watching over his shoulder. Where the impression comes from it is difficult to say, but if you will talk politics for five minutes with any resident you cannot help but notice the lowered tone of voice, the careful watch of passers-by or the graurded manner, as if there were a constant fear of spies. Nor is this noticeable alone when talking with royalists. The adherents of the Republic are just as guarded and just as careful.

“It looks as if they feared a change of Government and as if their expressions might be treasured up against them.

“Yet the Republicans and the papers are persistent in their declarations that the islands were never more peaceful than at present.

“Perhaps this is true, but if the the present Government is not sitting over a smouldering political volcano, then the signs are wrong, and this same Government has not failed to realize this fact. Nor has it failed to prepare a soft place to light after the explosion.

“What is this soft place?

“When a man who had been a resident of the islands but ten months made the public announcement of a new Government, that announcement was successful because of the American Minister, who backed up the revolutionists with the force of an American warship and the naval support of the United States. Liliuokalani was dethroned and the Republic (the Provisional Government is the correct term here) declared. It was announced to the world that the change was satisfactory to the great majority of the people of the islands, and the establishment of a new Republic in the Pacific was generally supposed to be the work of the natives, who had learned to govern themselves.

“But facts are sometimes stubborn and refute false statements. The facts of the change of government are not what have been made public.

“There are, in round numbers, a hundred thousand people of the Sandwich Islands. Fifty thousand are natives, thirty thousand Chinese and Japanese, nine thousand Portuguese, and eleven thousand whites of other nationality. When the men who established the provisional government broke their oath of allegiance and possessed themselves of the reins, they disfranchised all the inhabitants except the whites. They will tell you that only Japanese and Chinese were disfranchised, but by the establishment of a rigid oath of allegiance to the new government, they disfranchised the natives as well, for the native still retains enough of his primitive honor to hold himself bound by his oath, and he cannot swear that he will not try to get back that which rightly belongs to him.

“The natives are not alone in their feeling of resentment at the new government. Many of the whites who have who have lived for years on the islands see how their country is being ruined by unnecessary interference, and they, too, are restive. The Portuguese have found that the change benefitted only the few who ran the machine, and they are ready to aid in bringing about a (new) change.

*      *      *      *      *

“Probably no woman has been more maligned than the queen. Before her overthrow her virtues and good qualities were extolled to the skies by those who lose no opportunity of slandering her in the hope of bolstering their own cause. The people of the United States have been told all sorts of malicious stories regarding the private life of the queen and she has been pictured as an untutored, uncultured, coarse woman, whose sole object in life was her personal pleasure. This is anything but the truth. She is a woman of education and refinement, every inch a queen in talk, appearance and manner. Her face, which the published pictures of her much belie, shows deep thought and delicate refinement. There is strength in every line of it and her everyday life is a counterpart of what it (and her features) depict. A member of the Episcopal church, she is a devout and sincere Christian, doing no lip service, but making her life conform to the tenets of the belief. Her desire is that her people may advance and profit by the wonderful resources of the islands and reap the benefits of the improvement. In their present condition of subjection to foreign (haole) domination this is impossible as it is the policy of the Government to keep all natives from places of emolument.

“The feeling of the natives could not better be illustrated than by repeating a story told me by a friend in Honolulu.

“The government in its blindness to the welfare of the islands has devised registration rules and regulations that are revolting to all decent people. Among the regulations is one requiring every person on the islands to put his thumb mark on a piece of paper after the Bertillon method of identifying criminals. An old native was asked if he had registered. No. Was he going to register? No. Then he would get into trouble. What trouble? He would be fined. He had no money. Then he would be put in jail. Drawing himself up he said:

“’We are all of one mind. There are not jails enough to hold us all and the government hasn’t money enough to feed us all if we go to jail.’

“The thumb mark regulation will be rescinded. It cannot be enforced, especially as it applies to tourists and visitors as well as residents.”

*      *      *      *      *

“Clarence E. Edwords.”

{The words in the parentheses are ours, to give more clarification to the ideas.}

(Makaainana, 7/27/1896, p. 7)


Ka Makainana, Buke VI—-Ano Hou, Helu 4, Aoao 7. Iulai 27, 1896.

Response to Clarence E. Edwords, 1896.


Truthful Presentation of the Prediction that will Come True.

In the English language Independent newspaper of this past Saturday there was seen an letter written by Clarence E. Edwords and published in the Kansas City Journal of the Kansas County in the State of Missouri, United States of America, and it was taken from that paper and printed here. This Clarence E. Edwords is a newspaper editor and a political leader for the Republican party, and he was one of the delegates to the convention at Saint Louis [Sana Lui] to select a Presidential candidate. He recently appeared before us, and what he stated of his thoughts, he saw and heard for himself. He and his wife were welcomed into the crowd of our saintly ones, and after their [the saintly ones] tale telling [palau ana] was over, then they [Mr. and Mrs. Edwords] were shown by the friends of the lahui’s side the true situation of what was done and what is being done.

His thoughts was one of the most truthful seen for a long time pertaining to the “Hawaiian Situation” here, and under the title about was his thoughts published; and although he is an American Republican, he was brave in his announcing his true thoughts before the people of his land. Because of the extreme length of that letter, Ka Makaainana cannot translate it all, but we will take of his explanation pertaining to the

Return of the Monarch,

and we will put aside most of it for later, when there is sufficient time to translate it. This is what he said:

“The members of the present government are not as blind to the situation as they appear. When the queen was robbed of her throne and and her means of living at the same time, it would seem that common justice should have given her a pension; but the government refused to do anything of the sort. They realized, however, that they were on dangerous ground and proceeded to provide a means of safety.

“The queen was imprisoned…

(Makaainana, 7/13/1896, p. 1)


Ka Makaainana, Buke VI—-Ano Hou, Helu 2, Aoao 1. Iulai 13,1896.

…on charges of treason, and while under duress was forced to abdicate (abandoning for good her right to the throne). According to the monarchical constitution the reigning soverign names his or her successor (heir), and following this rule the queen had named her niece Princess Kaiulani, as heir to the throne. The Princess, Miss Cleghorn, is well-off in this world’s goods, yet at the same sitting of the legislature which refused to pension the queen, a bill was passed granting to the Princess Kaiulani $4,000. It was what a politician might call a very “smooth” piece of work. If abdication under duress could be held as legal, then Kaiulani is the legal sovereign of the islands. If the present government gets ousted and the monarchy re-established, Kaiulani will rule, and those who so generously donated other people’s money expect to be graciously remembered by the new queen.

In short, it is pretty well understood just now that the republican form of government under existing conditions on the Hawaiian Islands is a failure, and the men who are now at the head of the government hope, by putting Kaiulani on the throne, to save themselves and their property and avert the disaster of overthrow, which they realize is bound to come.

But they reckon without their host. The Hawaiians are not illiterate savages. Neither are they heathens. With all the boasted educational facilities of the United States the percentage of illiteracy is much higher here (the United States of America) than on the islands. Strange as it may seem, there is but 1 percent of the natives who are illiterate. Go to the rudest hut, made of grass and occupied by fisherman, and you will find that they take and read the native paper. They not only read, but they think. They are honest and resent dishonesty in others. The natives will not be appeased by a re-establishment of the monarchy with Kaiulani on the throne. Nor would Princess Kaiulani accept the throne so long as Queen Liliuokalani is alive. The queen is still the queen to her people and they not only honor her, but love her, and treat her with as much difference and respect to-day as at any time during her reign.

 This simply means that when the change comes, and come it will as sure as the islands remain, Queen Liliuokalani will be on the throne, not through any effort of design of her own, but by the expressed will of a vast majority of the people of the islands. I say this advisedly. The queen will take no part in any attempt to recover the government. She is willing to sacrifice herself and her interests for the good of her people, but will under no consideration jeopardize the welfare of her people for her own benefit. She has persistently refused to  counsel with those who desire a change and has kept in seclusion that is painful to her friends.”

The words in parentheses [apo] are ours.

(Makaainana, 7/13/1896, p. 8) kumu hoopii no ke kipi...

Ka Makaainana, Buke VI—-Ano Hou, Helu 2, Aoao 8. Iulai 13,1896.

Ice and Ice Cream in Hawaii, 1869.

[Found under: “NOTES OF THE WEEK.”]

Ice and Ice Cream at all Hours.—If anyone doubts that ice can be manufactured here, he has simply to step into Mr. Bartow’s auction room, where will be found an apparatus so simple that a child can make from one to two quarts of ice (or from two to four pounds) in about half an hour. Yesterday, on the first trial, with the thermometer at about 80°, solid ice was formed, which served to make for the spectators some refreshing drink. This apparatus is a new invention, for which Mr. B. is agent, and the machines are supplied at one hundred dollars each. They are so simple and handy that they recommend themselves, and are always ready to serve the wants of those using them. From eleven to twelve o’clock to-day, Mr. B. will again demonstrate to the skeptical how easy it is to make ice when you know how. In New Orleans, ice is now regularly manufactured, by the aid of a steam engine, and supplied to customers at less than one cent a pound, while the imported article costs four cents. If its manufacture is so successful there, why may it not be introduced here on a smaller scale?

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 7/17/1869, p. 3)

Ice and Ice Cream at all Hours.

The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Volume XIV, Number 3, Page 3. July 17, 1869.

A mele by the “Solomon” of Hawaii, William J. Sheldon, 1918.


Here again is this mele which was composed for the Hawaiian boys who just left Hawaii for America to join the armed forces of the nation, to try all means to obtain peace in the future, and the composer recalls the famous words of the Conqueror of the Nation of Hawaii nei, “Law of the Splintered Paddle: let the old men and the old women go and lie by the roads, no one is to disturb them.”

These lines of mele were composed in English by our friend and famous composer of songs of these days, and in other words, the “Solomon,” Hon. William J. Sheldon (Kelekona). The music will be available soon as it is now being edited with great care.


Farewell, farewell dear Hawaii,
Sweet land of song and aloha
Thy sons to duty’s call go forth,
To the front thy honor to bear.


Boys, when you get over there,
Don’t forget Hawaii aloha
For you, we will ever pray
That freedom and liberty be won.


Thou are brave sons of Hawaii,
True to your country’s call,
Let Hawaii’s fame be known,
O Hawaii no ka oi.

(Aloha Aina, 6/21/1918, p. 2)


Ke Aloha Aina, Buke XXIII, Helu 25, Aoao 2. Iune 21, 1918.