Spread of the flu on Kauai, 1919.


From the news of the past 27th of this month, it reported of the great spread of the Spanish sickness [Spanish flu] at the Sugar Plantation of Makaweli on Kauai, and the number of those who contracted this sickness reached five hundred people, rising sharply every day. And twelve died of this sickness and pneumonia. Continue reading

Traditional place names and the Daughters of Hawaii, 1918.


This past Wednesday the Daughters of Hawaii [Ahahui o na Kaikamahine] held a meeting at the home of Queen Emma in the uplands of Nuuanu, known by all by the name Hanaiakamalama, the old home of Kamehameha IV and his queen; and at that meeting it was decided that the calling of many places in Honolulu nei by their Hawaiian names will be preserved forever.

To carry out this endeavor, the organization decided to continue calling the name “Leahi,” and not Diamond Head, as it is being called now, and so too with other names that have been changed; they will be returned to their old names that Hawaiians are familiar with.

At that meeting several things were read pertaining to the life of Queen Liliuokalani  by Mrs. Lahilahi Web, a speech by A. F. Knudsen, and Representative Kuhio, along with the singing of some old mele, just as if they were recreating memories of familiar deeds from the time of Queen Emma in that home.

For the treasury of the Red Cross, Mr. A. F. Knudsen will give a speech specifically pertaining to Hawaii nei of the olden days, at Memorial Hall of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association [Papa Hawaii], at eight o’clock on the evening of this Saturday, May 4, under the direction of the Daughters of Hawaii nei.

The entrance will be half price to go and listen to the speech and for all activities that will be put on, and being that it is a benefit for the Red Cross, and that it is beneficial to listen to this history pertaining to the Hawaiian lahui, all the people should go to hear his speech so that the new generations can get some education.

Mr. Knudsen was born on Kauai and went around amongst the Hawaiian children, and met the old people, and listened to the old stories of Hawaii nei; and because of this, the stories he tells that night will be something totally new for Hawaiians of today, the people who know hardly any of the stories of their lahui and their land.

(Kuokoa, 5/3/1918, p. 4)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 18, Aoao 4. Mei 3, 1918.

Mrs. J. P. Kahanamoku passes on, 1936.



Mrs. Julia Paoa Kahanamoku left this life at 69 years old, and she is the mother of Sheriff Duke Paoa Kahanamoku. At 9 o’clock or so in the morning of this past Thursday, June 4, she left this life behind, at her residence at 1847 Ala Moana Road, after going into a decline through weakness for a long time. Her husband preceded her in death many years ago, Captain Duke H. Kahanamoku.

She was born here on Oahu, and she spent most of her life in Waikiki. She descended from the lines of the I and Mahi of Hawaii, …

(Alakai o Hawaii, 6/11/1936, p. 1)


Ke Alakai o Hawaii, Buke 9, Helu 9, Aoao 1. Iune 11, 1936.

…from ancient times, and her birth father, Mr. Hoolae Paoa, was one of the people who oversaw many ahupuaa during the monarchy. She was a full Hawaiian by birth, as well as was her husband.

During her healthy days, she participated in many promotional activities in this land. During the years of the great world war [WWI], she put herself out doing all the work of the Red Cross [Ahahui Ke’a Ulaula] in Honolulu;* she was a member of the Kapiolani Maternity Association, Daugthers of Hawaii, and a member of the Kaahumanu Society [Ahahui Kaahumanu].

Mrs. Kahanamoku had six sons, boys who each went off to find his own fortune, boys who participated greatly in promotional activities as well as body-strengthening events in this land. She has two girls who are living, and one who passed some year ago; the ones living are Bernice and Kapiolani, and the third who died was Maria.

Her ashes were buried at the cemetery in Nuuanu.

This Newspaper joins in on the grieving with this family of children who are bereft of their parents, as well as the rest of the family; and we humbly beseech that the sad thoughts of this family of children and all of the ohana as well be lightened.

*It is no surprise that Duke himself was knitting warm clothes for the Red Cross!

(Alakai o Hawaii, 6/11/1936, p. 4)

...au kahiko, a o kona luaui makuakane...

Ke Alakai o Hawaii, Buke 9, Helu 9, Aoao 4. Iune 11, 1836.

Red Cross knitting drive, 1917.

Red Cross Knitting

The increasing number of knitters in the service of the Red Cross necessitates the publication of the following:


Because of a difference in knitting needle sizes in the United States—there being three manufacturers’ gauges which, unfortunately, do not correspond, the Pacific Division of the American Red Cross ask that the women follow the printed directions as near as possible, but try out their needles and yarn to see just what measurement a definite number of stitches gives them.

Following are the sizes the articles should be.


Length 25 inches.
Width across chest from 16 to 20 inches, preferably 18 inches.


11 inches wide.
68 inches long—(3 yards even more acceptable.)


12 inches long.
Openifig should be 3 inches from top.


Length should be 11 inches from top of leg to division of heel.
Width of leg and of foot—4 inches.
Foot 10½ inches to 12 inches.
(11 and 11½ inches average length.)

Materials required—2½hanks knitting yarn.
No. 5 Needles.

Cast on 96 stitches.
Knit 2, purl 2 for 3 inches.
Knit until it measures 25 inches from the beginning.
Make neck hole as follows:
Knit 35 stitches, bind off 26, knit 35.
Knit 7 ribs on each side (over and back is a rib)
Knit 35 stitches—cast on 26, knit 35.
Knit for 22 inches, knit 2, purl 2 for 3 inches.
Crochet sides together, leaving 9 inches for arm hole.
Crochet edge ½ inch deep round around neck.

(Garden Island, 12/4/1917, p. 4)

Red Cross Knitting

The Garden Island, Volume 13, Number 49, Page 4. December 4, 1917.

Duke donating time to make warm clothing, 1918.

In this picture is seen Duke P. Kahanamoku, the swimming champion of Hawaii nei making warm clothing in his spare time on the shore of Waikiki. The young girl watching him is named Miss Kathryn Jackson of Kalakaua Avenue who heard much of Kahanamoku going to make clothes, and she thus wanted to see it for herself.

(Kuokoa, 4/5/1918, p.1)

Ma keia kii e ikeia ana o Duke P. Kahanamoku...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 14, Aoao 1. Aperila 5, 1918.

Donations to the Red Cross by the patients and residents of the leprosy colony, 1918.


There arrived from the leprosy colony of Molokai, a total of two-hundred and forty-eight dollars, in the form of a donation for the Red Cross [Ke’a Ulaula], given by the patients and some others of the colony, from twenty-five cents to twelve dollars.

In the list of the donors to the Red Cross is Dr. Goodhue and his family, along with J. D. McVeigh and his family, and also those who reside there while working in the leprosy colony.

This sum of money to assist the Red Cross was sent along with a document explaining the reasons that this assistance was given by the patients, so that someone reading it would not be left without knowing that the assistance is given by them sincerely for the benefit of the American soldiers fighting the war for the good and the victory of the land. Here below is the agreed upon resolutions for the assistance of the Red Cross.

“Whereas, the United States of America is now at war, and soldiers are being injured on the battlefield, they should receive care and proper medicine; and

“Whereas, there have been established a number of collections for the Red Cross set up all around the United States, and every Territory, and the other areas under the protection of the United States; and

“Whereas, we are a part of the United States of America, and the majority of us here are patriotic citizens;

“Therefore, we will not fall back from showing our patriotic spirit, and with true patriotism, we give what we can for the donation to the Red Cross.

“And, let it once again be remembered that there are a great number of us being helped here stricken by disease who receive assistance from those outside of the Leprosy Colony; let us show that there are those of us here who can give and that we are happy for this fine opportunity to assist those injured fighting for our land, in this great war of the world.”

Here below is the list of names and the donations that each gave to assist the Red Cross:

J. D. McVeigh ….. $10.00
Emma McVeigh ….. 2.50
J. D. McVeigh, Jr. ….. 2.50
Marie Cushingham ….. 2.50
Chulu Cushingham ….. 2.50
W. J. Goodhue ….. 10.00
Mrs. W. J. Goodhue ….. 5.00
Miss V. M. C. Goodhue ….. 5.00
W. W. Goodhue ….. 2.50
J. D. Goodhue ….. 2.50
F. J. Cook ….. 1.00
Mrs. Marithew ….. 1.00
Joe Keliikuli ….. .25
Mrs. Keliikuli ….. .25
Kawaiku ….. .25
Mon Soy ….. 1.00
John V. De Coito ….. 1.00
Mrs. John V. De Coito ….. 1.00
Oliver Kawaiwai ….. .50
Cecelia Akim ….. 5.00
Lilian Keamalu ….. 5.00
Friend and wife ….. 3.00
Mr. and Mrs. Van Lil ….. 5.00
Charles Manua ….. 5.00
Mrs. Paele ….. 5.00
Joseph Dutton ….. 10.00
L. Aloisa ….. .50
John Martin ….. 1.00
Kaulahao ….. 1.00
Peter Kanakaole ….. .50
S. Kunukau ….. .50
Ben Pea ….. 1.00
William Kamahalo ….. .25
Joe Barrett ….. .50
H. Hatori ….. .50
Frank Kaihenui ….. 1.00
William E. Purdy ….. 1.00
B. Palikapu ….. 1.00
Al. J. Kauhaihao ….. 1.00
A. S. Kahoohalahala ….. .75
Mrs. A. S. Kahoohalahala ….. .75
D. Kapae ….. .50
Kaua Keonenui ….. .50
Edward Dowsett ….. 2.00
Bishop Home ….. 12.50
Franciscan Sisters ….. 5.00
H. K. Kamaka ….. 2.00
S. C. K. Keaweamahi ….. 2.00
Baby Rachel ….. 2.50
H. A. Nailima ….. 2.00
Kalei Hoolapa ….. 1.00
Kailiao ….. .50
James m. Keanu ….. 1.00
John Makahi ….. 5.00
Kalaupapa Red Cross Auxiliary Aid Society ….. 5.00
Joseph Texeira ….. .50
Agnes Holstein ….. 1.00
Jack Kamealoha ….. 5.50
Moses Pauli ….. 5.00
Peter Nuhi ….. 1.00
Mr. & Mrs. D. K. Kamahana ….. 10.00
W. J. Feary ….. 2.50
Amoe Ah Choy ….. 2.50
Mamae ….. 1.00
John Forbes ….. 5.00
Joseph Aiona ….. 2.50
Mrs. Joseph Aiona ….. 2.50
Mr. & Mrs. Haleamau ….. 5.00
Mr. & Mrs. Eddie Hart ….. 5.00
John Dias ….. .50
Eddie Davis ….. .50
Yen Sui ….. .50
K. A. Long ….. .50
George Nakookoo ….. .50
Aloysius Kamaka ….. .50
L. W. Kuhlman ….. 5.00
Moses Holi ….. 1.00
Aika Liwai ….. .50
Mary Mokuahi ….. 5.00
D. Paalua ….. .50
Mr. & Mrs. Joe Naukana ….. 1.00
Mr. & Mrs. William Kiaha ….. 1.00
Mr. & Mrs. A. Hore ….. 1.00
F. W. Wicke ….. 1.00
W. Kaleiheana ….. 2.50
Helen Freeman ….. 2.50
Mr. & Mrs. Palea Pohina ….. 2.00
Friend ….. 1.00
Friend ….. 1.00
Hattie Kalua ….. 1.00
Friend ….. 1.00
Friend ….. 1.00
Father Maxime ….. 6.00
J. T. Unea ….. 1.00
John Aiona ….. 1.00
C. Nascimento ….. 10.00
Mrs. J. H. B. ….. 3.00
A. S. Paniani ….. 5.00
Total ….. $248.00

[The patients of the leprosy colony might have often been forsaken by those on the outside, but it seems throughout history that those forced to live there did not forsake those on the outside.]

(Kuokoa, 2/1/1918, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 5, Aoao 2. Feberuari 1, 1918.

And yet another on Liliu and the Red Cross, 1917.

Red Cross Flag, Gift of Queen, Flies From Hawaii’s Capitol

Governor Presents Emblem On Behalf of Liliuokalani

Governor Pinkham presenting Red Cross flag this morning. Col. Iaukea, the queen’s secretary, is seen holding the flag.


FOR the first time in history a Red Cross flag was raised today over the territorial capitol, former palace of Hawaii. The flag is the gift of Queen Liliuokalani, and it was at her request that it was first displayed from the staff on the executive building.

In an impressive ceremony held at 10 o’clock this morning Governor Pinkham presented the flag on behalf of the Queen to the Allied War Relief Auxiliary and the Red Cross workers of Hawaii.

Mrs. Henry F. Damon, president of the auxiliary, received the flag and hoisted it to the breezes. The ceremony was held on the mauka steps of the capitol, fully 50 women and a number of men gathering for it. A generous clapping of hands greeted the banner as it opened against a clear background of blue sky and in the bright gleam of a morning sun.

After reading the queen’s letter, in which she presented the flag to the Red Cross workers, Governor Pinkham said:

“Women of the Red Cross:

“You are gathered here to receive from Her Majesty Ex-Queen Liliuokalani, her gift of the emblem of Universal Humanity, that you may raise it above your labors in behalf of those your countrymen and their allies, who with devotion to the very limit of suffering and death, offer themselves in this struggle for universal democracy.

“Your work of alleviation of suffering has touched the heart of Her Majesty and those in authority from the President of the United STates to those on her own island home and her friends, who now know of her deep personal interest, for it has been manifested in every way within her power.

“With the words she has personally caused to be recorded, I in her behalf, present you with the banner of the Red Cross, which you are to place high above the capitol, that all may recognize the place of your merciful and patriotic labors, and the deep heartfelt sympathy and practical assistance of Her Majesty, Liliuokalani.”

Col. C. P. Iaukea, secretary of the queen, then handed over the big banner to Mrs. Damon, who received it on behalf of her coworkers.

“It is a great honor to receive this flag on behalf of the Allied War Relief Auxiliary and the Red Cross workers of Hawaii,” said Mrs. Damon. We wish to thank you, Governor Pinkham, for letting it be displayed on the executive building as a symbol of loyalty and service to the cause of America.

“In 1864 fourteen governments and six societies acknowledged the Red Cross flag as an emblem to be used in the care of the sick and wounded, and the flag is now displayed by all nations and societies as token of this. The first Red Cross banner was raised in 1881 at Washington, District of Columbia, and in 1900 by congressional act was given official recognition.”

When Mrs. Damon had finished the flag was placed on the halyards and she raised it so that the breezes caught and unfolded it in the sunlight. After today it will be taken down and kept in the throne room as a token of Queen Liliuokalani’s generous heartedness.

Beginning today the throne room in the capitol building will be kept open on Friday afternoons to give opportunity for service to those women who cannot come for Red Cross work in the mornings.

Mrs. Henry F. Damon of the Allied War Relief Auxiliary said today that this is in the nature of an experiment and will be kept up only if the attendance on Friday afternoons warrants it. There have been a number of requests to keep the rooms open during some afternoons, and Friday has accordingly been selected.


Hon. Lucius E. Pinkham,

Governor of Hawaii.

Dear Sir: It affords me much pleasure in handing you a Red Cross flag, with the request that it be presented to the ladies of the Allied War Relief Auxiliary of the Honolulu, Hawaii, Chapter of the American Red Cross, as an expression of my warm and hearty sympathy with the cause of humanity and an abiding faith in the work of the patriotic women of Hawaii.

In presenting this emblem of the Red Cross, may I suggest that it be first displayed over the executive building so that all who may see it may be reminded of their patriotic duty and know that beneath its folds, in the throne room of Iolani palace, sit a group of silent workers giving of their time and untiring effort in the work of alleviation and mercy?

Very sincerely,


(Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/14/1917, p. 3)

Red Cross Flag, Gift of Queen, Flies From Hawaii's Capitol

Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXV, Number 7932, Page 3. September 14, 1917.

More on Queen Liliuokalani and the Red Cross, 1917.

Liliuokalani Becomes Red Cross Member As Whistles Signify 8000 Mark Is Reached

Queen Liliuokalani receiving a Red Cross card from Mrs. Gerrit Wilder after her contribution of a $100 check to the fund.

Her Majesty Queen Liliuokalani today became a patron member of the American Red Cross.

Seated in her wheel chair on the broad lanai of her home at Washington Place she handed over to Mrs. Gerrit Wilder, chairman of Division No. 1, the hundred dollar check which gave her patron membership in the national organization. Mrs. Wilder in turn placed one of the little Red Cross cards in the venerable lady’s hands and thanked her for the generous gift.

“It is with the deepest appreciation that I accept this gift from you on behalf of the Red Cross,” said Mrs. Wilder. “This is another of your many deeds of kindness and generosity.”

Queen Liliuokalani bowed gently and a sweet smile came over her face. She spoke a word or two in answer, turning to Mrs. Wilder and to Mrs. William Todd and Mrs. E. White Sutton, the other member of the visiting committee.

Curtins P. Iaukea, the queen’s secretary, pointed to the card which she held, telling her that she was now a member of the organization for which it stood. People all over the city are giving to this cause, he said.

Just then another of the whistles that were announcing the swiftly increasing subscriptions began to blow. Col. Iaukea inquired and was told that this was the whistle signifying 8000 had been reached.

“That is 8000 now,” said the secretary. “Eight thousand members this morning.”

“Eight thousand,” said the queen, pronouncing the words slowly and distinctly, and her face lighted.

“And you are the eight thousandth,” Col. Iaukea told her.

Queen Liliuokalani was gowned this morning in black, with a small white shawl over her shoulders. About her neck was a beautiful pink and white lei of flowers, while a crown-shaped comb held her white hair.

(Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 9/29/1917, p. 2)

Liliuokalani Becomes Red Cross Member As Whistles Signify 8000 Mark Is Reached

Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XXV, Number 7945, Page 2. September 29, 1917.

Queen Liliuokalani and the Red Cross, 1917.




12 September, 1917

My dear Mr. Secretary:

Thank you for your letter of September sixth enclosing the letter from Governor Pinkham and the letter from Queen Liliuokalani.

Will you not take early occasion to request Governor Pinkham to express to Queen Liliuokalani my personal appreciation of her generous contributions to the Red Cross?

Cordially and sincerely yours,

[signed] Woodrow Wilson

Hon. Franklin K. Lane,

Secretary of the Interior.

(A letter of appreciation from President Woodrow Wilson to Queen Liliuokalani, for her assistance to the Red Cross.)

[The Queen dies just two months later on November 11th…]

(Kuokoa, 9/28/1917, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LV, Helu 39, Aoao 2. Sepatemaba 28, 1917.

Picture of members of the Red Cross in Waimea, Kauai, 1918.


From the left side, the line in the far back, the names are: Mrs. Otto Lihau, Mrs. S. Keliinoi, (president); Mrs. Au Sing, Mrs. Paahana Kamaile (treasurer); Mrs. Kanani Alakai (Hui Kaahumanu).

Second line: Mrs. Kapa Waiwaiole, Mrs. Poni, Mrs. Hemolele, Mrs. W. C. Crowell, Mrs. Palea, Mrs. Hookano, Mrs. I. Akana, Mrs. D. Kalau, Mrs. P. Meeawa, Mrs. Mary Hoopii, Mrs. Kipa, Mrs. Kapah.

Third line: Miss Victoria Apana, Miss Lily Naea, Miss Helen Alakai, Mrs. William Keliinoi, Miss Violet Lincoln, Mrs. Aloehuwai Hunt, Miss Akana, Mrs. Lucy Wright, Mrs. Alice Ah Hee, Miss Kapu Palea, Miss Rebecca Paahana.

[If the original newspapers were reshot, this picture would surely be much more clear. I hope they are reshot soon.]

(Kuokoa, 6/14/1918, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 24, Aoao 2. Iune 14, 1918.