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On the 6th of last month, N. K. Pukui, traveling agent of the Hawaiian Realty and Maturity Co., while on a tour of the Island of Hawaii, found the above illustrated sled in a cave at Hookena, Hawaii.
It is said that the oldest kamaainas of Hookena have heard from their parents and grandparents that sometime in the reign of King Keawenuiaumi, about two hundred and fifty years ago, a high chiefess named Kaneamuna [Kaneamama] was the living at Hookena. Her principal amusement was hee holua (coasting on a sled) and hee nalu (surfing).
She had her people make a sliding ground for her on a hill just back of the little village of Hookena, and ordered a sled, or land toboggan, called a papa holua, as well as a surfing board, or a papa hee nalu. When the slide was finished she passed many pleasant hours sliding down the steep hill. This slide was composed of smooth stones covered with rushes. After her death her sled and surf board disappeared, and the secred of their hiding place was never revealed.
It is believed the sled and board found in the cave belonged to the High Chiefess. They are made of the wood of the bread-fruit tree and at the present time are in very good condition. The cocoanut fiber ropes are still attached to the sled.
ANCIENT HAWAIIAN SLED FOUND IN A KONA, HAWAII, CAVE.
Mr. Lorrin Andrews in his Hawaiian Dictionary gives the following definition of the word Poi: “The paste or pudding which was formerly the chief food of Hawaiians, and is so to a great extent yet. It is made of kalo, sweet potatoes or breadfruit, but mostly of kalo, by baking the above articles in ovens under ground, and afterwards peeling and pounding them with more or less water (but not much); it is then left in a mass to ferment; after fermentation, it is again worked over with more water until it has the consistency of thick paste. It is eaten cold with fingers.”
The learned Hawaiian lexiographer [lexicographer] do not give the exact meaning of the word. Poi is a name given to mashed Kalo, potatoe, breadfruit or banana. The Kalo (a species of arum ex-culentum [arum esculentum] when cooked, is mashed or pounded with a stone, especially made for that purpose, until it becomes like a good soft (flour) dough. From that stage it is then reduce to what is called—poi. It is only at this stage the word poi is used. When the taro is merely mashed, or pounded into a hard pulpy mass, it is called a pa’i-ai or pa’i-kalo. When it is reduced to a still softer condition, and could be twisted by fingers, it is then called poi—whether hard or soft (poi paa or poi wali). When the poi is too soft, it is called poi hehee.
Our kanaka savant ventures to give his definition of Poi. He thinks that it primarily means to gather up; to collect, to pull up; to hold or lift up an article, lest it falls down or spills over. It is analogous to the word Hii, “to lift up; to carry upon the hips and support with the arms, as a child.” An expert poi pounder will call the attention of an unskillful person when pounding taro, saying: “E poi mai ka ai i ole e haule mawaho o ka papa.” (Gather up the ai (foot [food]) lest it falls over the board). He found a French definition of the word “poi” in Boniface Mosblech’s “Vocabulaire Oce’anien—Francais, et cetera, (Paris, 1843) to wit: “boullie de taro” (soft taro). That does not give the derivative definition of the word (kalo) any better than Mr. Andrews.
In conclusion we add the old legend pertaining to the origin of Kalo (taro).
Wakea was the husband, and Papa was the wife, and they two were supposed by some ancient Hawaiian tradition, the first progenitors of the Hawaiian race. They lived on the Koolau side of the Island of Oahu, and also at Kalihi. Their first born son was of premature birth. The little fellow died and its body was buried at one end of their house. After a while, from where the child’s body was buried a new kind of plant shot up. Nobody knows what it was. Finally, green leaves appeared. Wakea called the leaves “Lau-kapa-lili” (the quivering leaves) and the long stalk or stem of the plant was called “Ha-Loa” (long stalk or stem). The plant was finally called by Wakea as “Haloa.”
On the 6th of this November, found in a hidden cave in Hookena, South Kona, on the island of Hawaii, was a holua-sliding board of ancient times of Hawaii. This surfboard [sic] was found by our companion and good friend, Mr. N. K. Pukui, one of the young gentlemen travelling about for the group, “The Hawaiian Realty and Maturity Co.” When he found this board, the kamaaina of Hookena told him, this finding of the sled was new to them.
It is believed that this holua board was left in that cave for two-hundred years, from the time of Keawenuiaumi, the King of Hawaii.
According to the understanding of the oldsters of Hookena, they remember the words of their parents and grandparents, that it was a holua-sliding board of a chiefess of Hookena from long ago, named Kaneamama, and her older sister was the kaukau alii of Keauhou. These women, they were women who loved recreation. While Kaneamama was ruling Hookena, she declared to her people [kanaua? kanaka?] that they were to build a sledding course. This course was completed, and that chiefess rode upon this board. It is said that there is no sled equal to this one in any museum all over the world. This sled was made from breadfruit wood, and it is a thing of beauty to behold.
A surfboard was also found. These boards can be seen in the Office of the Group, “The Hawaiian Realty and Maturity Co.,” here in Honolulu.