Champions, Duke Kahanamoku and Frances Cowells, 1915.


Duke Kahanamoku and Frances Cowells, two of America’s greatest swimmers. The Duke was the hero of the last Olympiad and is the holder of several world’s records, while Miss Cowells holds four American records. The picture was snapped at the World’s Fair in San Francisco shortly after the exposition swimming meet, of which Miss Cowells was the undefeated champion among the women. This is an unusual picture of the swimmers as it shows them in their street clothes.

(Day Book, 8/11/1915,  p. 24)


The Day Book, Volume 4, Number 268, Page 24. August 11, 1915.

Swimming trophies brought home by the Hawaii boys, 1913.


Yesterday and today a good-sized crowd gathered about the window of Thrum’s book store, on Fort street, admiring the cups and medals brought back by the Hawaii swimmers. The lion’s share of these are the property of Duke Kahanamoku, who now has a large enough collection of gold medals to start a jewelry store.

In the above picture, the cups, from left to right, are for the rough water swim at Redondo; the Indoor Yacht Club cup, for the team making the greatest number of points at the San Francisco meet; the cup presented to W. T. Rawlins, manager of the Hui Nalu team by Charles Y. Williamson of the British Empire Club, and Al Coney of the South End Rowing Club; and the relay cup, won at San Francisco by the Hui Nalu team.

The medals are for first prize in the 50, 100, 220, 440 yard, and the 50 yard back stroke, won by Duke at San Francisco; second prize in the back stroke, won by D. Kaupiko; third prize in the half mile, won by Frederick Wilhelm; a gold medal presented by the Los Angeles Athletic Club to Duke; and a first prize medal won by Duke at the Los Angeles Swimming Association meet.

The trophy presented to W. T. Rawlins is a handsome loving cup, which was given the local man at the Stewart Hotel just before the team left San Francisco.

[I wonder if we will be able to see any of these at the upcoming Duke exhibit at the Bishop Museum!]

(Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 7/22/1913, p. 9)


Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Volume XX, Number 6643, Page 9. July 22, 1913.

Duke Kahanamoku trophy, a champagne cup? 1913.


Duke Kahanamoku’s Trophy Is Utilized by Colonel Parker for Purpose Designed

Aboard the liner Sierra a loving cup was used yesterday for the purpose for which it was designed.

The cup was one of the trophies carried home by Duke Kahanamoku, the Hawaiian swimmer, who sailed on the vessel for his home.

Colonel Sam Parker was also a passenger. The colonel insisted on filling the cup with champagne. He then invited Duke’s friends into the Sierra’s saloon and, passing the brimming bowl to a pretty girl, begged her to drink [to] the dark skinned swimmer’s health.

Until the cup was empty everybody was Duke’s devoted friend.

(San Francisco Call, 8/13/1913, p. 4)


The San Francisco Call, Volume 114, Number 74, Page 4. August 13, 1913.

Hawaiians to be referred to as “kanaka,” 1925.


Several days ago, in the English newspapers of Honolulu Town, we heard the thoughts of Professor Adams [Polopeka Akamu] of the University of Hawaii, explaining that the Hawaiian People were looking for a new name for themselves, and that name being “kanaka,” and as for all of the other ethnicities born in Hawaii nei, they would be known as “Hawaiians.”

From our understanding of this idea of this friend of ours, it is not appropriate nor right, and for this reason: this name we have, “Hawaiians,” it is a name which we have been accustomed to from our ancestors; it is a name known worldwide, “Hawaiians” are the natives to these islands, and to change the name “Hawaiian” and for us to be known hereon as “kanaka;” who amongst us Hawaiians who love our motherland will raise his hand announce before the whole world, I want to be called a “kanaka,” not a “Hawaiian.”

Therefore, oh people of the native land, from Kauai to Hawaii, let us rise at once to announce with one heart, no, not at all shall we change this name “Hawaiian,” and call ourselves “kanaka.”

The Heavenly Father will definitely not allow this name that is beloved by us, “Hawaiians” to be changed.

(Hoku o Hawaii, 12/15/1925, p. 2)


Ka Hoku o Hawaii, Buke XIX, Helu 30, Aoao 2. Dekemaba 15, 1925.

A Song for Duke Kahanamoku, 1912.


Kaulana Hawaii a puni ke Ao,
Ia oe e Duke Kahanamoku;
Nau i alo aku na kai loa,
Pakipika me ka Atelanika;
Haalele mai oe i ke one hanau,
Maluna o ka mokuahi Honolulana;
Ike oe i ka nani o Maleka,
Ma neia hana he heihei au;
Ike oe i ka hau-oki o Kaleponi,
Me ka uluwehi o ka Ipuka Gula;

Haalele oe i ka nani o Kaleponi,
No na kulanakauhale o ka Hikina;
Peneselavania ame Nu Ioka,
No ke komo i ka hui Olimapika;
Ku’i mai ka lono puni Hawaii,
Ua lanakila oe Duke Kahanamoku;
He moho Au hoi no Ameria,
E paa i ka moto haneri-mita;
Heihei Au nui o ke Ao nei,
Kulanakauhale o Sekokahama.

Haalele i ke awa o Nu Ioka,
Maluna o ka mokuahi Finelana;
Me na hoaloha ilipuakea,
No na kaiaulu o Europa;
Ike oe i ka nani o Suedena,
Me ka Emepera o Perusia;
HIki mai i ka la hookuku,
Aha’i mai oe i ka lanakila;
He mohokaulana no ke ao nei,
Mahimahi hoi no ka Pakipika.

Ku aku oe imua o na ‘Lii,
Moi kane Moi wahine;
Me na hoomaikaiia ana mai,
No ka moho kaulana o ke Ao nei;
Loaa ia oe na medala,
A Hawaii e haaheo ai;
Ike puia hoi me Hawaii,
Ia oe e Duke Kahanamoku;
Hoike akuu oe i ko ke ao,
Ka haahaa ame ka paa rula.

Haalele aku oe ia Europa,
No ke ala huli hoi no Amerika;
Ike hou i ka nani o Maleka,
Hookipaia me ka hanohano nui;
Mai Nu Ioka a Kapalakiko,
Ke ala huli hoi i ka Aina;
Ike hou i ka nani o Kaleponi,
Hookipaia me ka hanohano loa;
Ka moho kaulana o ke Ao nei,
Ka mahimahi o ka Pakipika.

Haalele i ka uluwehi o Maleka,
Maluna o ka mokuahi Wilhelmina;
Hoi mai me ka lei o ka lanakila,
A Hawaii e lei mau ai;
Pili mai ka moku i ka uwapo,
Apoia aku me ke ohohia nui;
Ka moho kaulana o ke ao nei,
Ka mahimahi o ka Pakipika;
Hainaia mai ana ka puana,
E ola loihi o Duke Kahanamoku.

Hakuia e Leinaala, o ka Makani Apaapaa.

Kohala, Hawaii, Oct. 11, 1912.


Hawaii is renowned world around,
For you, O Duke Kahanamoku,
You faced the great seas,
The Pacific and the Atlantic,
You left your birth sands,
Aboard the steamer Honolulan,
You witnessed the beauty of America,
In this pursuit of swimming competitions,
You saw the icy cold of California,
And the verdure of the Golden Gate.

You left behind the beauty of California,
For the cities in the east,
Pennsylvania and New York,
To join the Olympic team,
The news reached all over Hawaii,
That you were victorious, O Duke Kahanamoku,
You are on the American Swimming team,
You hold the 100-meter record,
In the great Swimming Contest of the World,
In the City of Stockholm.

You left New York Harbor,
Aboard the steamer Finland,
With your fair-skinned friends,
For the cities of Europe,
You witnessed the beauty of Sweden,
And the Emperor of Persia,
The day of the contest arrived,
You took the victory,
The famed champion of the world,
Mahimahi* of the Pacific.

You stood before the Monarchs,
King and Queen,
While being congratulated,
For the famed champion of the World,
You received medals,
For which Hawaii is proud,
Recognized along with Hawaii,
You, O Duke Kahanamoku,
You show the people of the world,
Humility and decorum.

You left Europe,
On the return trip to America,
To see again the beauty of Maleka,
You were welcomed with great pomp,
From New York to San Francisco,
On the road back home,
You witnessed once more the beauty of California,
You were welcomed with much honor,
The famed champion of the World,
Mahimahi of the Pacific.

Leaving behind the verdure of America,
Aboard the steamship Wilhelmina,
Returning with the lei of victory,
Of which Hawaii will forever wear,
The ship touches the dock,
You were embraced with such enthusiasm,
The famed champion of the world,
Mahimahi of the Pacific,
Let the story be told,
Long live Duke Kahanamoku.

Composed by Leinaala, of the Apaapaa Wind.

Kohala, Hawaii, Oct. 11, 1912.

*A mahimahi is a fish that is a fierce swimmer.

[The Duke Paoa Kahanamoku exhibit at the Bishop Museum begins in a week (August 9 to November 30)! I hear there will be a lot of cool things to see and experience…]

(Kuokoa, 10/18/1912, p. 5)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLVIII, Helu 42, Aoao 5. Okatoba 18, 1912.

Tameamea… 1838.


That is the name of the great Alii of Hawaii nei. This name is known by the kanaka maoli, however it is something that is misconstrued in the spelling of the haole; some people and others write it strangely in their documents. Here is how ten haole wrote it, each are different. They are all old people. These are extracted from various foreign documents.

1. Tameamea

2. MaihaMaiha

3. Cameamea

4. Comaamaa

5. Tomyhomuhaw

6. Tamaahmaah

7. Hameamea

8. Tomooma

9. Tamahama

10. Tameahmeha.

(Kumu Hawaii, 9/12/1839, p. 31)


Ke Kumu Hawaii, Buke 4, Pepa 8, Aoao 31. Sepatemaba 12, 1838.

The Hawaiian Flag! 1883.

The Hawaiian Flag!

The Support of Hawaii!!

It is this symbol which honors you, O Hawaii; it is a mantle for you to have pride in; and above all things, it is the Support for the roof of your house, secured unwaveringly; and it is worthy of pride and boasting. Its awesome beauty as it flutters on the tips of the winds presents Hawaii across the four corners of this globe.

This symbol, a Flag, the affection for it is indelibly emblazoned in all peoples; and thus they are proud of and boast of the Flag of their own nation. Abuse of the flag of a nation is the abusing of the nation and its people. Rebellions, quarrels, and wars have been started between nations of this world because of the scorning and mistreatment of the flag of one nation by another.

Amongst all patriots, among the true natives who honestly prize their land of birth; amongst those who stand steadfast behind their own nation; it is a lei and a cherished thing; yes; it is not only there that their thirst of aloha for their flag is quenched, but there is so much more—for its waving in victory is the Support [Koo] which sustains their independence by way of their nation. Continue reading