Month names on Maui and Hawaii, 1890.

Month Reckoning on Maui.

Ikuwa ….. January

Welehu ….. February

Makalii ….. March

Kaelo ….. April Continue reading

Traditional month names, 1890.


In this chart of Hawaiian months, the people will see if it is correct or distorted. This chart is not the same as the one shown in this paper of the 1st of this past November, and this is how this chart is laid out:

1—Welo, corresponds to the month of March

2—Ikiiki ” ” ” April

3—Kaaona ” ” ” May Continue reading

The mirage of Limaloa, 1885.


O Ko Hawaii Pae Aina newspaper,

Aloha oe:—Please allow your patience to let me shake hands with your captain and the metal typesetting boys.

At dawn, 2 o’clock, on the Wednesday of the 1st of July, the night of Laau Pau in the reckoning of the Hawaiians. We left Waimea and the motion of our cars were driven straight for Lolomauna, where we would stay and watch for the building of the village [kauhale] of Limaloa, and we settled back for the rest of the night and the morning; it was a 6 o’clock. Our eyes looked quietly down at the beautiful flat plains of Limaloa spread silently before us,  hoping to see the famed magical kauhale (Limaloa), but we did not. 7 o’clock passed by and there was no sign of what we were hoping to see, and 7 minutes thereafter, the plains of Limaloa began to change; they were shrouded in different colors: red, yellow, and green, and glittered like gold, and it moved from the sea upland, and amongst the coconut trees that were standing. And from there it went on until the edge of the salt beds, headed towards Mana like an ocean wave crashing upon the surface of the sea.

Continue reading

Another example of “Hilo Aihue”, 1912.

Calendar for 1912


January February March
MAUI—Ikuwa MAUI—Makalii MAUI—Hinaiaeleele
OAHU—Hilina OAHU—Ikiiki OAHU—Kaaona
KAUAI—Ikiiki KAUAI—Kaelo KAUAI—Hinaiaeleele
1 Monday Hua 1 Thursday Akua 1 Friday Hua
2 Tuesday Akua 2 Friday Hoku* 2 Saturday Akua
3 Wednesday Hoku 3 Saturday Mahealani* 3 Sunday Hoku*
4 Thursday Mahealani 4 Sunday Kulu 4 Monday Mahealani*
5 Friday Kulu 5 Monday Laaukukahi 5 Tuesday Kulu
6 Satuday Laaukukahi 6 Tuesday Laaukulua 6 Wednesday Laaukukahi
7 Sunday Laaukulua 7 Wednesday Laaupau 7 Thursday Laaukulua
8 Monday Laaupau 8 Thursday Olekukahi 8 Friday Laaupau
9 Tuesday Olekukahi 9 Friday Olekulua 9 Satuday Olekukahi
10 Wednesday Olekulua 10 Satuday Olepau 10 Sunday Olekulua
11 Thursday Olepau 11 Sunday Kaloakukahi 11 Monday Olepau
12 Friday Kaloakukahi 12 Monday Kaloakulua 12 Tuesday Kaloakukahi
13 Satuday Kaloakulua 13 Tuesday Kaloapau 13 Wednesday Kaloakulua
14 Sunday Kaloapau 14 Wednesday Kane 14 Thursday Kaloapau
15 Monday Kane 15 Thursday Lono 15 Friday Kane
16 Tuesday Lono 16 Friday Mauli 16 Satuday Lono
17 Wednesday Mauli 17 Satuday Muku Hilo† 17 Sunday Mauli
18 Thursday Muku 18 Sunday Hilo 18 Monday Muku
19 Friday Hilo 19 Monday Hoaka 19 Tuesday Hilo
20 Satuday Hoaka 20 Tuesday Kukahi 20 Wednesday Hoaka
21 Sunday Kukahi 21 Wednesday Kulua 21 Thursday Kukahi
22 Monday Kulua 22 Thursday Kukolu 22 Friday Kulua
23 Tuesday Kukolu 23 Friday Kupau 23 Satuday Kukolu
24 Wednesday Kupau 24 Satuday Olekukahi 24 Sunday Kupau
25 Thursday Olekukahi 25 Sunday Olekulua 25 Monday Olekukahi
26 Friday Olekulua 26 Monday Olekukolu 26 Tuesday Olekulua
27 Satuday Olekukolu 27 Tuesday Olepau 27 Wednesday Olekukolu
28 Sunday Olepau 28 Wednesday Huna 28 Thursday Olepau
29 Monday Huna 29 Thursday Mohalu 29 Friday Huna
30 Tuesday Mohalu 30 Saturday Mohalu
31 Wednesday Hua 31 Sunday Hua

* Full Moon.  †New Moon; because of the short day, Hilo-aihue is the moon.

(Au Hou, 1/24/1912, p. 1)

Alemanaka no 1912

Ke Au Hou, Buke 3, Helu 3, Aoao 1. Ianuari 24, 1912.

More on traditional calendars, 1906.

Calendar for 1906

Offered from KA NA’I AUPUNI.


Name of Month of Hawaii [Island]—Nana.
” ” Maui—Hinaiaeleele.
” ” Oahu—Kaaona.
” ” Kauai—Hinaiaeleele.

1 Poaha [Thurs] Olekukahi
2 Poalima [Fri] Olekulua
3 Poaono [Sat] Olekukolu
4 Sabati [Sabbath] Olepau
5 Poakahi [Mon] Huna
6 Poalua [Tues] Mohalu
7 Poakolu [Wed] Hua
8 Poaha Akua
9 Poalima Hoku
10 Poaono Mahealani¹
11 Sabt. Kulu
12 Poakahi Laaukukahi
13 Poalua Laaukulua
14 Poakolu Laaupau
15 Poaha Olekukahi
16 Poalima Olekulua
17 Poaono Olekupau
18 Sabt. Kaloakukahi
19 Poakahi Kaloakulua
20 Poalua Kaloapau
21 Poakolu Kane
22 Poaha Lono
23 Poalima Mauli
24 Poaono Hilo³
25 Sabt. Hoaka
26 Poakahi Kukahi
27 Poalua Kulua
28 Poakolu Kukolu
29 Poaha Kupau
30 Poalima Olekukahi
31 Poaono Olekulua

1. Mahealani—Full moon by Hawaiian count, and same as the Haole count.

2. Muku—There is no moon; its moon is taken by Hilo, and that is why it is called “Hilo Aihue” [Thieving Hilo]. Therefore, Muku enters or is lost into the night of Hilo, and it can be said that the night of the 24th, is the night of Saturday, and is a night of “Muku” as well as “Hilo.”

3. Hilo—This is the night of the New Moon, that being Hilo: however, it might be only seen for a bit, being that this moon, Hilo, appears at 1:24 and 9 seconds in the afternoon. (This is the time of the mahina hou (new moon) according to the haole). The sun will set at 6:04 and 2 seconds. At 11:47  that night, the moon will set.

Clarification—This explanation will be changed every month.

[I recently ran across this term “Hilo Aihue” once again after not seeing it for a number of years. The earliest i have seen it used is by a man commonly known as J. L. Kukahi. He actually gives his name as being Joseph Liwai Kawohikukahi, and his explanation of “Hilo Aihue” appears in an ongoing argument with D. M. Punini, Jr. (David M. Punini, Jr.) over the traditional Hawaiian calendar. See Makaainana, 4/22/1895, p. 3.]

(Na’i Aupuni, 3/26/1906, p. 3)

Alemanaka no 1906

Ka Na’i Aupuni, Buke I, Helu 102, Aoao 3. Maraki 26, 1906.

Poepoe’s chart of the traditional month names, 1906.



Names of the Months of Hawaii Nei.


1 Kaelo  Ikuwa  Ikuwa  Hilina  Ikuwa  January
2 Kaulua  Makalii  Hinaiaeleele  Ikiiki  Welehu  February
3 Nana  Hinaiaeleele  Welo  Kaaona  Kaelo  March
4 Welo  Kaelo  Makalii  Makalii  Kaulua  April
5 Ikiiki  Ka’ulua  Kaelo  Hinaiaeleele  Kaaona  May
6 Kaaona  Kaaona  Kaulua  Mahoe-mua  Nana  June
7 Hinaiaeleele  Ikiiki  Nana  Mahoe-hope  Mahoe-mua  July
8 Mahoe-mua  Nana  Ikiiki  Welehu  Mahoe-hope  August
9 Mahoe-hope  Hilina  Kaaona  Hilinehu  Welehu  September
10 Ikuwa  Hilinama  Hilinehu  Ka’ulua  Makalii  October
11 Welehu  Hilinehu  Hilinama  Kaelo  Hilinama  November
12 Makalii  Welehu  Welehu  Hilinama  Hilinehu  December

[This is Joseph Mokuohai Poepoe’s chart appearing in his series comparing various histories, “Moolelo Hawaii Kahiko” [Old Hawaiian History], appearing in the newspaper Na’i Aupuni.]

(Na’i Aupuni, 10/18/1906, p. 1)


Ka Na’i Aupuni, Buke II, Helu 117, Aoao 1. Okatoba 18, 1906.

Traditional month names, 1895.

Hawaii Island Reckoning of the Months.

Kaelo, is the month of January
Kaulua ” ” February
Nana ” ” March
Welo ” ” April
Ikiiki ” ” May
Kaaona ” ” June
Hinaiaeleele ” ” July
Mahoe Mua ” ” August
Mahoe Hope ” ” September
Ikua ” ” October
Welehu ” ” November
Makalii ” ” December

This above is how the fishermen reckoned the months.

Nana, is the month of January
Welo ” ” February
Ikiiki ” ” March
Hinaiaeleele ” ” April
Kaaona ” ” May
Mahoe Mua ” ” June
Mahoe Hope ” ” July
Ikua ” ” August
Welehu ” ” September
Makalii ” ” October
Kaelo ” ” November
Kaulua ” ” December

This above is how the farmers of Hawaii reckoned the months.


Ikua, is the month of January
Makalii ” ” February
Hinaiaeleele ” ” March
Kaelo ” ” April
Kaulua ” ” May
Kaaona ” ” June
Ikiiki ” ” July
Nana ” ” August
Hilina ” ” September
Hilinama ” ” October
Hilinehu ” ” November
Welehu ” ” December


Hilina, is the month of January
Ikiiki ” ” February
Kaaona ” ” March
Makalii ” ” April
Hinaiaeleele ” ” May
Mahoe Mua ” ” June
Mahoe Hope ” ” July
Welehu ” ” August
Hilinehu ” ” September
Kaulua ” ” October
Kaelo ” ” November
Hilinama ” ” December


Ikiiki, is the month of January
Kaelo ” ” February
Hinaiaeleele ” ” March
Kaulua ” ” April
Kaaona ” ” May
Nana ” ” June
Mahoe Mua ” ” July
Mahoe Hope ” ” August
Welehu ” ” September
Makalii ” ” October
Hilina ” ” November
Hilinehu ” ” December

S. H. P. Kalawaiaopuna,

Kalaupapa, October 3, 1895.

[This is just one of many differing explanations of the traditional names of months by the various islands.]

(Kuokoa, 10/12/1895, p. 4)

Ka Helu Malama o Hawaii.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XXXIV, Helu 41, Aoao 4. Okatoba 12, 1895.

Leap year, 1896.

Irregular Increase in Time

This is a leap year [makahiki lele oi], in other words, there are 29 days in this month, and there will be no more leap years until the year 1904, a span of eight years. When reaching 1904, there will not be another for another 200 years. There are these types of irregular leaps, as was explained above, every 200 years. This occurrence which is happening this year, took place 200 years ago, that being in the year 1696 and then in 1704 the leaping began again. Amongst the haole, this is the time for women and young men to pull in their hooks, that is if there is good bait on it. And what of our youth, will they be haphazard?

[Not sure what kind of math is happening here…]

(Makaainana, 2/24/1896, p. 7)

Oioi Kikoi o ka Manawa.

Ka Makaainana, Buke V, Helu 8, Aoao 7. Feberuari 24, 1896.

“Kaua i ka Nani o Hilo” and finding things where you might not expect. 1895.

“Kaua i ka Nani o Hilo”

[This mele for Kalakaua is taken from an article entitled “OWAI LA O J. L. KUKAHI, KA IHEPA NUI O KA WAA PAE E PEE NEI?”, which is a scathing criticism by D. M. Punini, Jr. over an ongoing argument concerning the naming of Hawaiian traditional months. But here, I wanted to show once again, that you never know what you will find and where.

The version of “Kaua i ka Nani o Hilo” most widely known today is probably the one from the Roberts Collection at the Bishop Museum, which is quoted here. The Museum’s Mele Index can be searched online here. But notice that the Punini version has additional verses (highlighted in red).

Also note that “Kawaihau” is one of the names for Kalakaua.]

Kaua i ka nani o Hilo

I ka ua loloku i Hanakahi

Akahi hoi ko’u manene

ka meeu hoi a ko’u oho

He ula leo paha na ka Iwi

Iku-a mai la i Haili

Ilihia i ka leo o ka Mamo

E-wa mai la i Olaa

Ua laa ia pua ianei

Eia i ko’u kiaha

Ua hoolawa ia me Lia

Me na lehua i Panaewa

Kuhi no paha oe Malia

Hookahi halau i ao ai

E like ai na mea hana

O na buke hoonui ike

He makau hala ole keia

Ua lou ia e ka i’a nui

Ua ale ia ka’u maunu

E Moano nui ka Lehua

Ua paa i ka lino pawalu

I mali’a i ke aho makalii

Kuhi oe i ka Hilu noenoe

A he i’a ia no ke kohola

O Kalale au o Kaiona

Nonoho i ka malu ohai

Aohe hana a Malamanui

Ua kau ke keha i Kaala

O ka iki nioi pepa ia

Holo ka wela i na aa koni

Ka upena nae mai keia

Aohe i’a koe hei mai

He hului au no ke kai loa

No ka moana kai hohonu

E—o e ka wohi kukahi

O Kawaihau no he inoa.

(Leo o ka Lahui, 4/2/1895, p. 3)


Ka Leo o ka Lahui, Buke II, Helu 1078, Aoao 3. Aperila 2, 1895.