THE QUEEN AND COURT AT WAIPIO, 1893.
[How many people can you name here in this awesome image of Queen Liliuokalani?]
(Sunday Advertiser, 10/4/1908, p. 8)
[How many people can you name here in this awesome image of Queen Liliuokalani?]
(Sunday Advertiser, 10/4/1908, p. 8)
A very short and a very insufficient call was made for a mass meeting on Palace Square at 5 o’clock yesterday afternoon, to protest against the promulgation of the Republic while the question of the revolution was still in the hands of the United States Executive as arbitrator. Scarcely anybody knew a meeting of the kind was intended until yesterday morning. Nevertheless, when the hour arrived there had assembled a thousand people, this number being tripled by the time proceedings began.
The premises of Mr. Nacayama were kindly allowed for the use of the meeting. In the small elevated pavilion overlooking the square were seated Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Widemann, Mr. and Mrs. James Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. John A. Cummins, Mrs. Nawahi, Mrs. Aholo, Mrs. Fernandez and Miss Peabody. In front were Messrs. J. O. Carter, J. Nawahi, J. E. Bush, R. W. Wilcox, J. K. Kaulia and press reporters. There were also stationed at the front the Government shorthand reporter, J. W. Jones, and interpreter, W. L. Wilcox, to catch any sedition that might be talked to the crowd.
Mr. Nawahi called the meeting to order and introduce in turn Mr. Kaulia to read the resolution in Hawaiian, and Mr. Carter to perform the same office in English. The resolution is a follows:
“Be it resolved, that the Hui Aloha Aina and other Patriotic Leagues, together with the Loyal subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom, in Mass Meeting assembled, representing by far the greater majority of the legitimate voters of this country, do hereby most solemnly protest against the promulgation of a new Constitution, formed without the consent and participation of the People, and we also protest against changing the form of government from the one under which we have lived peacefully and prosperously for many years. And that we maintain that the will of the majority of the legitimate voters of Hawaii should be the supreme power of the land, as such power is so recognized and accepted by all the enlightened countries and by all the enlightened governments of the world.”
Mr. Bush then delivered the following address in both languages:
Fellow Citizens and Friends:
We are convened here this afternoon under the broad canopy of heaven, to enunciate broad and important principles. We are not here to express any personal grievances, nor to make any personal complaints, but as a large body of the people we are here, to express our wishes in a peaceful and orderly manner, against the promulgation of a document which we deem subversive of our rights as free citizens of this country. We are here in the interests of every individual present, and of every individual absent, whom some of us as associated bodies here represent, and of every unit of this government. We are here to set forth the inherent rights of every man and woman in Hawaii nei, and to object to any act restrictive of their rights, and are doing our duty. However, we are not unmindful of the just and legitimate authority vested in those who have assumed the governmental power to administer the affairs of the governed. We recognize the right of civil government to be, and the duty is divinely enjoined upon all rendering to the governmental power, provisional as well as permanent, that which legitimately belongs to it.
We believe that civil governments are ordained of God for the good of every man, woman and child, through the will of the people, and as long as so administered for their good and with their consent, we should give our adherence to it. We are not in sympathy with anarchy or with the creation of social disorder, believing that all our troubles can be more easily and more intelligently adjusted by the peaceful process of free and untrammeled appeal to the people, from whom all just power to govern belongs, and from whence it should emanate.
And it is because the fundamental principles of just government have been studiously and wilfully ignored by the powers that have been set up over us, through the armed intervention of the forces of a nation presumed to be on friendly intercourse with us, that we are gathered here to make protest against the further encroachment upon those principles and upon our rights as free citizens of an independent country, and especially against the promulgation of a constitution in which, by unusual restrictions, the people have been debarred from participating in, if they so desired. However, we have had other reasons for not participating in the framing of such a document, i.e., that we are pledged to respect the position of the Chief Executive of the American Nation, who, for the honor of his country, and for our benefit, is made a party to our affairs, as arbiter.
Until the United States, through its chosen head, is heard from, we find ourselves on the verge of being made a party, by tacit consent, to an act that sets aside all sense of honor, all moral obligation, yes, to participate in a flagrant insult toward and breach of confidence in a nation to whom we have submitted our differences for arbitration and readjustment. If for no other rea-
(Daily Bulletin, 7/3/1894, p. 1)
son than the last, we should all the more loudly proclaim our disapproval of the proposed institution of a new for of Government, under a new constitution formed by an oligarchy, until the arbiter of our dispute is heard from, and until if need be the voice of the people of Hawaii is heard, whose right it is to speak upon Hawaii’s future destiny.
We regret, deeply regret, the necessity that calls for this protest from us. But duty to ourselves and honor to those whom we have appealed to demand that we should give utterance to our views in brief and in unmistakable language, without being personal or vituperative. It is a God-given right, and we would be derelict in duty if we refrained from exercising it, and unanimously sustaining the resolution just read, which embodies all that is necessary to express our principles and by thus publicly and peacefully putting ourselves upon record before the world, absolve ourselves from the charge of being partakers in arbitrary and high-handed measures, the culmination of successive unprincipled acts, which began nearly two years ago.
We have met here to protest against personal government, against every act which restricts the inherent rights of the people. No one can deny that the constitution proposed by the Provisional Government is based upon a fraudulent foundation. The whole fabric from which it emanated is one of injustice, fraud and fiction, and it will end, as all such acts of Neroism should end, by disgrace to the inceptors and disaster to the State that should be unfortunate enough to have such retrogressive principles for its foundations, whereby and by which to rule and govern its people.
Mr. Bush had thrown a few impromptu remarks into his written address, which caused laughter and applause. In arguing that the Constitution of the Republic did not assure stable government, he referred to the quarrel in the Convention between “Brother Damons and Brother Smith.” He asked if men born under the free flag of America could support the conduct of the authors of the Constitution. Cries of “No” answered him.
Mr. Nawahi in a few words spoke of the action in proclaiming a republic as premature, while Hawaiian affairs were yet under consideration by the United States. If he were the American Minister he would tell those people to keep to their provisional status until the matter was settled. He called for the ratification of the resolution by three cheers.
The call was responded to by a roar of voices which could be heard a mile away.
Messrs. Cummins, Widemann and Nawahi were named as a committee to present the resolution to the foreign representatives.
[The “Nacayama” who offers his premises to be used for this meeting must be G. O. Nacayama, seen also as G. O. Nakayama, the Inspector-in-Chief of Japanese Immigrants who lived on Merchant Street near the Opera House, as per PCA article 7/11/1894, p. 3.]
(Daily Bulletin, 7/3/1894, p. 4)
A great meeting of the makaainana of the lahui will be held on THIS EVENING. Monday, 2nd of July, at 5 p. m., exactly, to show their objection to the proclamation of a new Constitution and their disapproval of the changing of their form of government from what has been constant to their people from before.
This summons has been declared, calling the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina and the like Associations of the various ethnicities who have rights under the Constitution of the land, to gather this evening. Come all people.
Under the direction of
President of the H. H. A. A.
J. K. Kaunamano
J. E. Bush
H. A. Wideman
J. A. Cummins
J. K. Kaulia
Honolulu, July 2, 1894.
(Leo o ka Lahui, 9/2/1894, p. 2)
Whereas vital changes in our Country have taken place, which may affect its Independence and the Civil Rights of its Subjects and Citizens, thereby rendering indispensable a compact and zealous Union between all men who love the Country, irrespective of Party or creed.
Therefore, Resolved that We, the patriotic, peaceful and loyal Subjects and Citizens of Hawaii nei, for the purpose of peaceably guarding our Civil Rights, do hereby form ourselves into a League, under the following Constitution:
Article 1—The name of this Association shall be the HAWAIIAN PATRIOTIC LEAGUE (Ka Hui Hawaii Aloha AIna).
Article 2—The object of this Association is to preserve and maintain, by all legal and peaceful means and measures, the Independent Autonomy of the Islands of Hawaii nei; and, if the preservation of our Independence be rendered impossible, our object shall then be to exert all peaceful and legal efforts to secure for the Hawaiian People and Citizens the continuance of their Civil Rights.
Article 3—The League shall consist of one Central Body in Honolulu, with Branches in the various Districts of the other Islands.
Article 4—(A) All the Natives of this Country, over 20 years of age, who are willing to pledge themselves to the objects of this League, are eligible for membership thereof and may become members by signing this Constitution.
(B) All foreigners, at present enjoying or entitled to Civil Rights in this country, and in sympathy with the objects of this Association and willing to pledge themselves to it, by signing the Constitution, may be admitted as Honorary Members.
Article 5—The Central Body of the Patriotic League shall rule over all the District Branches , and shall be conducted by the following officers:
1. Honorary President,
And 13 Councillors who together, shall constitute an Executive Council of 19 members. All these Officers must be native Hawaiians and must be elected by Ballot, for such term of office, as may be provided in the by-laws of the League or Council.
The District Branches shall elect their Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer, and shall appoint one Delegate to represent them before the Central Body in Honolulu, which Delegate shall have a right to attend the meeting of the Executive Council and of the League.
Article 6—Foreign Members shall be elected by the Executive Council, to the following honorary offices: 1 Honorary President, 2 Honorary Vice-Presidents, 2 Honorary Secretaries, and 7 Honorary Councillors, or more, as may hereafter be determined by the League. These Honorary Officers shall constitute and Advisory Council who shall sit and vote with the Executive Council.
DUTIES OF OFFICERS.
Article 7—The duties of the various officers shall be those pertaining to the respective offices, as is usual in all similar organizations, and shall be more expressly defined in such by-laws as may be hereafter adopted by the Executive Council.
Article 8—Meetings of the League shall be called by the President, at the request of the Executive Council or of any other ten members;
Meetings of the Executive Council shall be called by the President at the request of any three members of said Council;
All proceeding s of meetings of the League and of the Executive Council shall be governed by the usual decorum and rules of Parliamentary Usage.
Article 9—Any member of the League or of its Executive Council, who may commit an act violating the spirit and purposes of this League may be summoned before the Executive Council, and upon conviction by them, be expelled from the League.
Article 10—All amendments or additions to the present Constitution must be approved by a general meeting of the League.
Adopted, Honolulu, this 4th day of March, 1893.
[See the Hawaiian-Language Constitution here!]
(Leo o ka Lahui, 3/22/1893, p. 3)
Oiai ua ike ia ae nei ka loli ano nui ana o ko kakou aina, he mea hoi e manaoia ai, e hoopilikia ia ana kona Kuokoa ame na Pono Kivila o kona mau Makaainana, a me na Kupa, a no ia mea, he mea pono e kukuluia ona Hui manao lokahi a makaala mawaena o na kanaka a pau e aloha ana i ka Aina, me ka nana ole i ka Aoao Kalaiaina, a Manaoio Hoomana paha. Nolaila:
E hooholoia. O makou o na makaainana kupaa a me na Kupa Aloha Aina a makee maluhia hoi o Hawaii nei, no ke kiai makaala ana i ko makou mau Pono Kivila, ma keia, ke hoohui nei makou ia makou iho ma kekahi Ahahui, malalo o ke Kumukanawai mahope ae nei. penei:
Pauku 1—O ka inoa o keia Ahahui, oia “Ka Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina.”
Pauku 2—O ka hana a keia Ahahui oia ka malama ana a me ke kakoo ana, ma na keehina hana maluhia a kue kanawai ole, i ke kulana Kuokoa o na Pae Aina o Hawaii, a ina he mea hiki ole ke malamaia ko lakou Kuokoa, alaila, o ka kakou hana oia ka hooikaika ana i na hana kue ole i ke kanawai a me ka maluhia e hoomau ia ai ka Pono Kivila o na kanaka Hawaii a me na Kupa makaainana.
Pauku 3—Aia iloko o keia Ahahui e kukulu ia he hookahi Hui Nui ma Honolulu i kapa ia “Ka Hui Kuwaena,” [Central Body] a mai loko aku ona e kukulu ia ai i ma Ahahui lala ma na Apana Koho o na Mokupuni.
Pauku 4—[A] O na Lala o keia Ahahui, oia na kanaka Hawaii maoli o keia aina, he 20 makahiki a oi aku i makemake e hoopaa ia lakou iho maloko o na kumuhana o keia Ahahui, ua kupono ia e lilo i mau hoa, a lilo hoi i mau lala mamuli nae o ke kakau inoa ana malalo o keia Kumukanawai.
[B] O na kanaka a pau o na Aina e, e noho nei i keia wa he mau Pono Kivila ko lakou iloko o keia aina a i lokahi pu hoi, na manao e kakoo i na kumuhana a keia Hui, a i makemake e hoopaa ia lakou iho no ua Hui la, ma ke kakau inoa ana malalo o keia Kumukanawai, e lilo no lakou i mau hoa Hanohano (Lala) no keia Ahahui.
NA HOONOHONOHO ANA.
Pauku 5—O ka Hui Nui Kuwaena [Central Body] o “Ka Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina” oia ke noho mana maluna o na Ahahui lala o kela a me keia apana koho, a e lawelawe ia ana e na Luna Nui malalo iho nei, penei:
1—Peresidena Hanohano, 1—Peresidena, 2—Hope Peresidena, 1—Kakauolelo, 1—Puuku a me 13 mau Hoa Kuka, a o lakou a pau, oia ka Aha Hooko o 19 lala. O keia mau luna a pau he poe kanaka Hawaii maoli, a e koho ia lakou ma ka Balota, no ka manawa a e hoakakaia e na Rula o keia Ahahui.
E koho no na Ahahui Lala o na apana koho i ko lakou Lunahoomalu, Hope Lunahoomalu; Kakauolelo a me ka Puuku, a e koho i hookahi Elele i wahaolelo no lakou e hele mai ai imua o ka Ahahui Nui (Hui Kuikawa) ma Honolulu, a ua loaa i ua Elele la ke kuleana e hele ai ma na halawai o ka Aha Hooko a me na halawai o ka Ahahui.
NA LUNA HANOHANO.
Pauku 6. O na kanaka o na Aina E, e lilo ana i mau lala, e kohoia lakou e ka Aha Hooko no na kulana hanohano e like me keia:
1. Peresidena Hanohano
2. Hope Peresidena Hanohano
2. Kakauolelo Hanohano
7. Hoa Kuka Hanohano, a oi aku paha e like me ka mea e hooholoia ana e ka Hui ma keia hope aku;
O keia mau Luna Hanohano oia ka Aha Kuka [Advisory Council] e noho pu a e koho me ka Aha Hooko.
NA HANA A NA LUNA.
Pauku 7. O na hana a na Luna Nui, ua like no ia me na hana maa mau e pili ana ina Hui e ae e like me keia ano Ahahui, a e hoakaka pono ia ana hoi ma na rula e aponoia ana ma keia hope aku e ka Aha Hooko.
Pauku 8. Na halawai o ka Hui e kahea ia no ia e ka Peresidena, ma ke kauoha a ka Aha Hooko, a o kekahi mau Hoa paha he 10;
E kaheaia na halawai a ka Aha Hooko e ka Peresidena ma ke noi a kekahi mau hoa 3, o ua Aha Hooko la;
O na hana o na halawai a pau o ka Hui a me ka Aha Hooko e alakai ia no ia e na rula o na anaina maikai, a me na rula maa mau o na Ahaolelo.
Pauku 9. O kela a me keia hoa o ka Hui a o ka Aha Hooko paha, e hana ana i kekahi hana e kue ana i ka manao a me na hana a keia Ahahui, e kauohaia no ia e ku imua o ka Aha Hooko, a ina ahewa lakou iaia, e kipakuia no oia ma ka Hui aku.
NA HOOLOLI O KE KUMUKANAWAI.
Pauku 10. O na hoololi a me na pakui ana mai i keia Kumukanawai, e hana wale ia no ia ma ka hooholo ana a na halawai mau o ka Hui.
Aponoia ma Honolulu, i keia la 4 o Maraki, 1893.
Peresidena Hanohano J. A. Cummins
Peresidena J. Nawahi
Hope Peresidena J. K. Kaunamano
” ” J. W. Pipikane
[See the English-language version here.]
(Leo o ka Lahui, 3/22/1893, p. 3)
Mr. Solomon Hanohano, Editor of the Kuokoa Newspaper:—Please publish the following mele from times past, when the land was filled with alii.
This is a name song [mele inoa] for the royal one Ahumanu [Kaahumanu], which was inherited by Kaumakaokane II, the mother of Kuakini (John Adams Cummins) during the youth of Kaumaka, and that royal woman [Kaahumanu] then called Kaumakaokane, by the name Papaleaiaina.
This name is the name that Kalaniahumanu [Kaahumanu] called the Royal One, Paiea Kamehameha I, and it is answered to today by the granddaughter of the Hon. J. A. Cummins, that being Matilda Papaleaiaina Walker Constable.
It would be best that these jewels of Hawaii nei be shown, for some of us will live on as teachers for the impertinent questions, as like the one who questioned in the Advertiser newspaper, about my dear brother, the Hon. J. A. Cummins, the “backbone” [iwikuamoo] of the chiefly ones who have passed into the next realm.
Kaumakaokane he inoa,
Hanau a koa he kupuna,
Eia ua aliiwahine nei,
Ke holo mai nei o ka moku,
Me ka hae o kau weloweloula,
Ku’ilua ka pu,
He aloha ia,
Aole i ike ka haole,
Wahi a Kalanikauleleiaiwi,
Iwi ka maka,
Holoholo ka onohi,
Lele ka puuwai i ka makemake,
I ka wai olu o Lanipo-e,
Nau ke ku’i haukeke ka auwae,
I hemahema i ka wa kamalii,
O ko’u wa naaupo no ia,
E laua la e,
Papaleaiaina kuu aloha e—
O kau ka haili aloha i o’u nei,
O ka welelau o kuu lima ka i pa aku,
Pa i ka lihi o Kilauea.
And here is the genealogy of the lei to adorn the neck of Ahia (Mrs. Capt. George Beckley), that being John Adams Cummins.
Liloa is the father who dwelt with Akahiakuleana, born was Umi. Umi, dwelt with Piikea, born was Aihakoko, Kumulaenuiaumi. Kumulaenui, dwelt with Kumunuipawalau, born was Kekapuhelemai; Kekapuhelemai dwelt with Piilani, born was Lonoikauakini.
Lonokauakini, dwelt with Kapukaheiau, born was Lonoikahaupo; Lonoikahaupo, dwelt with Ninauaiwi, born was Kekapalakea. Kekapalakea dwelt with Kelahuna, born was Kowali; Kolwali dwelt with Kaumaokaokane, born was Keaweaua. Keaweaua dwelt with Kaahaiku, born was Keauiaole; Keauiaole dwelt with Liloa, born was Kaumakaokane, Kameeiamoku.
Kaumakaokane (f) dwelt with Thomas Cummins, born was John Adams Cummins.
Kelahuna (f) is a descendant of Kelahunapaikua (m) and Ahia (f) and Kelahunapaikua (m) is a child of Kakuhihewa and Kolimoalani, that being Koaekea (f), the grandchild of Akahinuikameenoa (f), the woman that I placed a kapu upon.
Kelahuna (f) is the younger sister of Kamehaiku, these being female alii of Kau, Hawaii, and Kamehaiku is the woman of Keeaumoku, the father of Kaahumanu who slept with Kalanianoano and begot Kanehoa, the grandfather of Kaleianoano, Hoapili, and so forth, as well as Jesse Hakainai [Makainai ?], and so forth.
Sincerely, this is I
Ako-kuia ka hale lehua o ka manu,
Kauwewe i ka liko o ka ohia,
He uanoe he uaawa no ka mauna,
Uli ka nahele o Ookuauli,
Uli ka nahu hoomau a ka makani,
A makani a lei a lea,
Lea i na kauna ami a ka ua,
Alohi Maukele anapa i ka la e,
Okioki a hoe,
O ke aho no ia a ka ua Polohinalo,
A pikipiki ka lei,
Me he nu’a kapa la,
Popo ka lei a waiho malie,
Nana aku o kuu apana hala iuka o Panaewa,
Mamina ino no kuu kula lehua,
A’u i kawili mua ai,
Ua maka-pa ua eena ka manu,
He ena kai olohia ia no ke kanaka e—
The is the origin of my name from the heavenly one, Kauikeaouli; Kekulani is the name appended to Keoni Ana Opio [John Young, Jr.] when Kauikeaouli died and returned.
E o mai oe i kou inoa e Kekulani,
O ka lani no ka i ku,
I ka papa holu i ka makani,
A o oe no ke o mai e,
MARYJANE AHIA AHUENA KEKULANI MONTANO.
(Kuokoa, 3/31/1927, p. 1)