I hookahi, kahi ka manao, 1897.


At the meeting of the Executive Committee of the “Ahahui Hawaii Aloha Aina” [Hawaiian Patriotic League] at noon, 12 o’clock, at the attorney’s office of President Kaulia, the said Executive Committee decided that the Patriotic League will join and support the great rally of the makaainana of the lahui to absolutely protest the annexation of Hawaii to America, and it is announced to all of the members of the Hawaiian Patriotic League, from the men, to the women, to the children, to assemble at the Palace Square [Kuea Pa Alii] tomorrow evening (Friday) at exactly 7 o’clock, and there will be presented with insistence and unity, the resolution informing the President of the Senate and the people of the United States, that the native Hawaiians and the long-time makaainana protest the annexation of Hawaii to the United States of America.

Let us combine our prayers to overcome Hakalau. [E alu ka pule ia Hakalau.]²

James Keauiluna Kaulia

President of the Ahahui Hawaii Aloha Aina.

¹Hearkening to the idea of “I hookahi umauma, i hookahi poohiwi, a i hookahi puuwai.” [Let us be of one chest, one shoulder, and of one heart.] Also from earlier that year, see by Samuel K. Kamakaia, “Nai Wale no Oukou A’oe Pau.”

²According to Mary Kawena Pukui’s Olelo Noeau (115): “A sorcerer at Hakalau once created havoc in his own and other neighborhoods. Many attempts to counter-pray him failed until a visiting kahuna suggested that all of the others band together to concentrate on the common enemy. This time they succeeded.”

(Aloha Aina, 10/9/1897, p. 3)


Ke Aloha Aina, Buke III, Helu 41, Aoao 3. Okatoba 9, 1897.

Z. P. K. Kawaikaumaiikamakaokaopua’s treatise on kalaiaina, 1921–1922.


(Written by Z. P. K. Kawaikaumaiikamakaokaopua).


God gave all men wealth [waiwai]; He gave land to grow food, He gave trees to build houses and to assist in great works, He gave all growing things to fulfill the desires of men, He gave us hands and strength to work and administer the land and all things that will bring us wealth.

But when man lived in ignorance, they were very poor. The things God gave him were not made into wealth. He lived in caves or shacks, or crude and dirty structures. His clothes were leaves, or animal hide, or tree bark; he hunted wild animals for food and plants that grew wild in the forest; he did not imitate the ant who prepared a lot of food. That is how ignorant men lived poorly. They did not know where to obtain wealth. The saw the wealth of foreign lands, and were amazed at the great wealth of other lands. They did not understand that God spread upon all lands things to make great wealth.

That is why kalaiaina is important. There are many facets of that word. The soil in which farmers farm is aina. The ocean in which fishing is done is aina. The public mart is aina. Canoe carving is aina. House building is aina. Everything done to bring wealth to many people is called aina. Administering to the different aina is how to gain wealth and it was called kalaiaina by the writers of old. Continue reading