Why are some religions “real” while others are “superstitions,” “myths,” and “legends”? 1905 / today.

WAKEA THE POLYNESIAN

(By Rev. W. D. Westervelt in Paradise of the Pacific.)

The fountain source of the Mississippi has been discovered and re-discovered. The origin of the Polynesian race has been a subject for discovery and re-discovery. The older theory of Malay origin as set forth in the earlier encyclopædias is now recognized as untenable. The Malays followed the Polynesians rather than preceded them. The comparative study of Polynesian legends leads almost irresistibly to the conclusion that Polynesians were Aryans, coming at least from India to Malaysia and possibly coming from Arabia, as Fornander of Hawaii so earnestly argues. It is now accepted that the Polynesians did not originate from Malay parentage, and that they did occupy for an indefinite period the region around the Sunda Straits from Java to the Molucca Islands, and also that the greater portion of the Polynesians was driven out from this region and scattered over the Pacific in the early part of the Christian Era. The legends that cluster around Wakea have greatly aided in making plain some things concerning the disposition of the Polynesians. By sifting the legends of Hawaii-loa, we learn how the great voyager becomes one of the first Vikings of the Pacific. His home at last is found to be Gilolo of the Molucca Islands. From the legends we become acquainted with Wakea (possibly meaning “noonday” or “the white time” and his wife Papa (“earth”), the most widely remembered of all the ancestors of the Polynesian race. Their names are found in the legends of the most prominent island groups, and the highest places are granted them among the chief dieties. Their deeds belong to the most ancient times—the creation or discovery of the various islands of the Pacific world. Those who worshipped Wakea and Papa are found in such widely separated localities that it must be considered impossible for even a demi-god to have had so many homes. Atea or Wakea was one of the highest gods of the Marquesas islands. Here his name means “light.” The Marquesans evidently look back of all their present history and locate Atea in the ancient home land. Va-tea, in the Society Islands, Wakea in Hawaii and New Zealand, Makea-Vakea and Akea are phonetic variations of the one name when written down by the students who made a written form for words repeated from generation to generation by word of mouth alone. Even under the name Wakea this ancient chief is known by most widely separated islands. The only reasonable explanation for this widespread reference to Wakea is that he was an ancestor belonging in common to all the scattered Polynesians. It seems as if there must have been a period when Wakea was king of chief of a united people. He must have been of great ability and probably was the great king of the United Polynesians. If this were the fact it would naturally result that his memory would be carried wherever the dispersed race might go.

In the myths and legends of the Hervey Islands, Vatea is located near the beginning of their national existence.” Then there came upon the ancient world Te Vaerua, “the breath” or “the life.” Then came the god time—Te Manawa roa, “the long ago.” Then their creation legends locate Vari, a woman whose name means “the beginning,” a name curiously similar to the Hebrew word bara, to create, as in Gen. 1:1. Her children were torn out of her breasts and given homes in the ancient mist land, with which without any preparation or introduction, Hawa-iki is confused in a part of the legend. One of the children of Vari dwelt in a “sacred tabu island” and became the god of the fish. Another sought a home “where the red parrots’ feathers were gathered”—the royal feathers for the high chief’s garments. Another became the echo-god and lived in the “hollow grey rocks.” Another as the gods of the winds went far out “on the deep ocean.” Another, a girl, found a home, “the silent land,” with her mother. Wakea, or Vatea, the eldest of this family remained in Avaiki (Hawaii) the ancestral home—”the bright land of Vatea.” Here he married Papa. This Ava-iki was to the Herveyites of later generations the fiery volcanic under-world. When the long sea voyages ceased after some centuries, the islanders realized that Ava-iki was very closely connected with their history. They had but a misty idea of far off lands, and they did know of earthquakes and lava caves and volcanic fires—so they located Ava-iki as the secret world under their islands. This underworld with legendary inconsistency was located on the ocean’s surface, when it became necessary to have their islands discovered by the descendants of Vatea. According to the Hervey legends, Vatea is the father of Lono and Kanaloa, two of the great gods of the Polynesians. They are twins. Lono has three sons, whom he sends away. They sail out through many heavens and from Ava-iki “pull up” out of the deep ocean two of the Hervey islands. The natives of the Hervey group supposed that the horizon around their group inclosed the world. Beyond this world were heaves after heavens. A daring voyager by sailing through the sky line would break out from this world into an unknown world or a heaven bounded by new horizons. Strangers thus “broke through” from heaven to heaven, sometimes making use of the path of the sun. Thus about twenty-five generations ago Raa (possibly Laa, the Hawaiian), broke down the horizon’s bars and established a line of kings in Raiatea. So also when Captain Cook came to the Hervey Islands the natives said: “Whence comes this strange thing? It has climbed up (come up forcibly) from the thin land the home of Wakea.” He had pierced the western heavens from which their ancestors had come. Continue reading

Maori in Hawaii, 1912.

A New Zealand Theater Group.

A New Zealand theater troupe under the leadership of Ara, a man from the Maori people who performs astonishing acts, arrived in Honolulu. After they left their own land, they visited the lands of the South: New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, and then arrived here. They are taking beautiful shots of Hawaii nei, and when they perform, they have some nice scenes of these islands.

They will also show some pictures of New Zealand, the lifestyle of the Maori, the Hot Volcanic Springs, Palorous Jack [Pelorus Jack], that astonishing piloting fish that guides the way before sailboats when they enter into the harbor of Wellington, and for which a law was made protecting its life, as well as some other lovely pictures of New Zealand. One day in March, they will hold their performance at the Hale Mele Hou [Opera House].

(Aloha Aina, 2/17/1912, p. 1)

HE PUALI KEAKA NU KILANI.

Ke Aloha Aina, Buke XVI, Helu 7, Aoao 1. Feberuari 17, 1912.

Optimism a hundred and nineteen years ago… 1893.

COMPARISONS.

It was the Nation of America which restored Malietoa to once again rule as King. America held back the advances of Germany on Samoa and the taking of the Kingdom. It was America who saved the independence of Hawaii earlier, and we are optimistic that America will look at what is fair and just, and it will work along with the other nations of England and France to the right thing.

(Leo o ka Lahui, 1/18/1893, p. 2)

NA HOOHALIKE

Ka Leo o ka Lahui, Buke II, Helu 625, Aoao 2. Ianuari 19, 1893.

James Keau writes from Apia, Upolu, Samoa, 1887.

[Found under: “Correspondences from Friends”]

From Samoa.

Apia, Upolu, Samoa, Oct. 19, 1887.

Aloha to you and your whole family:

Here I am in Samoa in good health.

I am very taken by this land; life is good. The lay of the harbor is fine. If it was built well like the harbor of Honolulu, then this one would be better; currently, there are many lovely huge wooden houses and life here is somewhat like that in Hilo, but perhaps it is better here.

There is much food in this land, and fruits like coconuts, bananas, oranges, breadfruit, mango, and much more; life is easy here; the people are pleasant, people do not make trouble, they do not think much of work, they just go about their way.

Their bodies are bare: the men, women, and children as well; they have big bodies, and they cover their privates; some of them wear clothes as we do, and so do some men [?]

I will be going to Savaii, a large island like Hawaii, and there I will board a steamship and return to Honolulu in the month of December.

I am looking for all sorts of things to sell there; many haole acquaintances put in orders, and that is what I look for; coconut bowls are mainly the goods that I bring back, as well as some other things.

There are many things which this place is blessed with, and I feel that if I were to live here, I will have a blissful existence. Your friend, JAMES KEAU.

Paeaina [probably from the newspaper Ko Hawaii Paeaina (of which the May to December 1887 issues are missing…)]

(Kuokoa, 11/5/1887, p. 4)

Mai Samoa Mai.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XXVI, Helu 45, Aoao 4. Novemaba 5, 1887.