1836, the beginnings of sericulture on Kauai. 1843.

SILK. NUMBER 2.

In the year 1836, Mr. Peke and Kale made ready to farm silk [silika] in Koloa, Kauai, and afterwards the two were joined by Mr. Jarvis [Mi. Javisa]. They put much effort into this without caring about money spent to make it a success. They immediately planted ilima found growing here. They went to get ilima [? mulberry] seeds from China and brought back branches of the ilima lau nui from America. Mr. Peke went to the United States of America to see silk production there, and to find what it took to raise them in this archipelago; he returned without anything lacking, with the necessary gear, and sufficient workers, but the work was difficult and did not move forward. They kept at it, and some years went by, and they gave up. Many thousands of dollars was wasted on it.

Kapena and others also came with Mr. Peke, and leased other lands in Koloa, with thoughts of raising silk there. He planted ilima, built a residence, a building to raise the worms, and a house for the workers. They began the work, but in not much time, it was a bust. Here are the reasons that it was a waste of time in Koloa: there is a strong wind so the ilima does not grow well as the leaves are torn in the strong wind and wilt, the worms don’t grow well there; and the people also, they are not eager and do not keep at the work; they come some days and slack off, are lazy and leave. Today, the ilima of those silk lands are all pulled out and sugar is planted there. So sad for those foreigners who wasted their money in this endeavor. A new enterprise almost started there to make the nation rich.

(Nonanona, 1/3/1843, p. 78)

SILIKA. HELU 2.

Ka Nonanona, Buke 2, Pepa 16, Aoao 78, Ianuari 3, 1843.

(Nonanona, 1/3/1843, p. 79)

...kekahi aina okoa ma Koloa...

Ka Nonanona, Buke 2, Pepa 16, Aoao 79. Ianuari 3, 1843.

Paper Lei and Hawaiian foods popular in New York. 1912.

PAPER LEI ARE MUCH SOUGHT AFTER IN NEW YORK.

At the return of the head manager of the clothiers, Sachs, which stands at the corner of Fort and King Streets; [he said,] “Luau and paper lei have become popular with New Yorkers, and Hawaiian foods and lei are seen at parties given by many people on the banks of the Hudson River.

Supposedly at three places that haole went to visit, he saw people holding luau parties, and the only thing missing at those places was poi, salmon, tomatoes, onions and some other foods seen at luau in Hawaii nei.

One day when he went to go see one of his friends in New York, shown before him was an ilima lei and a lauhala hat upon which was a ribbon which read “Aloha,” and he said that they were a gift from Jim McCandless, as a memento.

(Kuokoa, 8/9/1912, p. 6)

MAKEMAKE NUIIA NA LEI PEPA MA NU IOKA

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLVIII, Helu 32, Aoao 6. Augate 9, 1912.

On the decline of native birds, 1871.

Locals of the Tuahine Rain are no more.

O Ke Au Okoa:—Aloha to you:

I am sending you a small gift atop your outstretched foundation, should your captain and Editor be so kind, and it will be for you to take it to the shores of these islands so that my newspaper-reading companions may see it, it being the letters placed above: “Some Locals of the Tuahine Rain¹ are no more,” and it has been ten or more years which they have not been seen.

And my friends are probably puzzled about these locals that have gone missing, and you, our old-timers, are all likely saying, not them, here they are, and some people have passed away, but we knew of their passing; but the departure of these kamaaina which I speak of was not witnessed. And this is it, the kamaaina birds of our uplands: the Iwi, the O-u, the Akakane, the Amakihi, the Oolomao, the Elepaio; these are the native birds of these uplands who have disappeared.

And some of you may be questioning, what is the reason for this disappearance? I tell you, it is because of the spread of the evil birds from foreign lands, in our plains, mountains, ridges, valleys, cliffs, forests, terraced taro patches, seashores, and rivers; that is why these kamaaina have gone, because of the spreading of these evil birds among us, and they are damaging the crops, and the food from the forests; rice planted by some are being eaten by these evil birds; and the bananas of the forests are all eaten up by these birds.

What do we gain from these evil birds being spread in Hawaii, and protecting them so that they are not killed? I say that we gain nothing from these evil birds which are hurting our native birds and crops and foods from the forests; because in the past, before the spread of these birds, if a kamaaina of this land wanted to go into the mountains to get thatching or some shrimp, or some oopu, they did not pack food with them, because they thought that there was food in the mountains, like banana, hawane fruit, and uhi; banana would ripen on the plant and then fall, without anything damaging them, but now, the bananas don’t ripen on the plant; they are eaten by these banana-eating mu [mu ai maia] of the forest; bananas don’t ripen, and [now] when you go into the mountains, there is just the oka-i [blossom container of bananas] left and the bananas are lost to these birds; and the kamaaina birds are gone. Where to? Perhaps they all went to Hawaii island.

And I say without any hypocrisy, the decrease of this people was because the arrival of the evil haole to Hawaii nei; it was they who spread the evil sicknesses: gonorrhea [pala] and syphilis [kaokao]. Smallpox [hepera] and leprosy [mai pake] are the reasons that our lahui was decimated, because of the arrival of the evil haole; if all the people who came to Hawaii were like the people who brought the light [missionaries],  then this lahui would not have decreased in number; so too with the arrival of the evil birds to Hawaii nei, which hurt our native birds and plants; this is like the decrease of our lahui with the arrival of the evil haole who spread gonorrhea and syphilis and similar diseases.

Therefore, I feel aloha for the kamaaina birds of my beloved land because they are all gone, and the youngsters of these days question, what are those birds like? They are tiny birds with beautiful voices, and their feathers as well, and they were an enjoyment in our childhood; when times of strong winds arrived, all the birds of the mountains would alight and show up at the doors of the houses which was entertaining for us to watch them flitting amongst the leaves of the ilima in our childhood and they were a playmate in our youth.

Before the arrival of these birds, there was a great abundance of Iwi, Amakihi, Akakane, O-u, Oolokela, and Elepaio, right here above us, atop the clumps of aliipoe, bushes of hau, noni trees, and more upland, the number of birds was amazing, atop the flowers of lehua of the mountain apples, and on the Ahihi and the Lehua Kumakua;  those uplands were so enjoyable but these days, they have all vanished, maybe because there were aggravated by these evil birds.

Here is another thing; if only the coming session of the Legislature could revise the law pertaining to birds from foreign lands, for there are destructive birds that have been imported as well from foreign lands.

And this is a supplication to you, O Ke Au Okoa. With aloha to the one who steers you, and also to the boys of the Government Printing Press. The boy from the uplands is turning back for the Tuahine rain of the land is spreading about.

T. N. Penukahi.

Manoa, June 24, 1871.

¹Tuahine [Kuahine] is the famous rain of Manoa.

(Au Okoa, 6/29/1871, p. 3)

He mau wahi kamaaina no ka ua Tuahine, ua nalowale.

Ke Au Okoa, Buke VII, Helu 11, Aoao 3. Iune 29, 1871.