Sweet Emalia and “Moku o Keawe” redux, 1907.

A Lei of Patriotism.

The Lehua Garland of Hilo, Hawaii Rises in Triumph—What is that in the Newspaper, Sweet Waiakahone.

Aloha Hawaii moku o Keawe
Aina a ka nani me ka maluhia,
Hookuku au me Kaleponi
Hawaii ka oi o na ailana,
Na ka Auseturia i kono mai ia’u
E naue i ka aina malihini,
Aina kamahao i ka’u ike
Ua uhi paa puia e ka noe,
Ike i ka hau hoopuakea ili
Hoopumehana i ke ahi kapuahi,
Ka iniki a ke anu me he ipo la
E koi mai ana ia’u e hoi,
Ilaila huli hope kuu manao
He kaukani mile ko’u mamao,
Hu mai ke aloha no ka aina
No ka poi uouo kaohi puu,
Haina ia mai ana ka puana
Ke Aloha Aina kuu lei ia.

Composed by Iosephine Emalia L. Pueamakakaualii Kamakaluhi, at the California winter exhibition in the skin-whitening snow, published in Ka Leo o ka Lahui, the patriotic newspaper of the time.

[Sweet Emalia and her song of aloha aina which is still so famous today!]

(Aloha Aina, 10/26/1907, p. 8)

He Lei no Ke Aloha Aina.

Ke Aloha AIna, Buke XII, Helu 43, Aoao 8. Okatoba 26, 1907.


Government officials to go to California to defend a Hawaiian citizen. 1863.

The Honorable C. Kapaakea and J. K. Unauna are headed to California on Monday. We have heard it is to serve as witness in the murder case of Kaheleiki, who is a Hawaiian. May the alii going remain in good health. It is however believed that the Honorable C. G. Hopkins [Hapakini] will accompany the witnesses.

(Hoku o ka Pakipika, 2/5/1863, p. 2)

E holo ana ka Mea Hanohano C. Kapaakea...

Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika. Buke 2, Helu 17, Aoao 2. Feberuari 5, 1863.

Early report on poi palaoa in California, 1859.

Poi Palaoa.

O Hae Hawaii;

I have some news to report and it will be for you to carry it around to the borders of the land from Hawaii to Niihau, so that the news is heard by our friends living in the countryside [kuaaina] and in the royal court [alo alii].

Here is the news: this is my ninth year of living here in California, and the Hawaiians in California desire poi greatly, but have no way to get it.

But we get poi from the flour that is made by the haole, and through the ingenuity of the Hawaiians who by thinking came up with that poi.

This is how you acquire the poi; get a pot that is two feet high and pour water into it half way and place on top the fire; when it boils, carry it aside and pour in flour into the pot; hold a stick in one hand and stir until firm then put back on the fire; keep doing this, and put back on the fire four or five times at which point the poi is cooked; pour into a bucket or in a barrel perhaps, and mix until smooth; when we eat poi palaoa it is truly delicious like taro poi of Hawaii. With appreciation, By M. NAHORA.

Coloma, El Dorado County,

California, February 12, 1859.

(Hae Hawaii, 3/16/1859, p. 199)

He Poi Palaoa.

Ka Hae Hawaii, Buke 3, Helu 50, Aoao 199. Maraki 16, 1859.

History of the Hawaiian Flag. 1880.

In Thrum’s Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1880, pp. 24–26, appears this article:


We exceedingly regret to report an unsuccessful search for the History of the present Flag of these Islands, the time of its adoption and the parties interested in its formation; but after diligent inquiries and research through volumes of voyages, histories, periodicals and manuscript journals during the past three years, we have to acknowledge the main fact lost in oblivion, while references thereto in various voyages and histories are confusing and contradictory.

There is a general idea and belief among many of our old residents that the present Hawaiian Flag was made by the late Capt. Alexander Adams before his voyage to China in the brig “Kaahumana, [Kaahumanu]” in 1817, and was by him first flown, not only in the Chinese waters, but on the coast of California. Others again have the impression that a flag was brought from China by him; but we can gather no information corroborative as to who was authorized in Chinese waters to design a flag for this, even small kingdom, though the description given viz: a St. George and St. Andrew’s cross in the corner filled in with blue, with field consisting of red and white stripes, shows almost virtually the East India Flag. Refering to Capt. Adams’ Journal we find the following mention only, that touches upon the points in question: ” April, 1816, The King of these Islands having a strong passion to purchase the brig, (‘Forrester,’ of London) and expressing the same, myself and Capt. Ebbetts was accordingly deputed to treat with him, but he would not purchase her without I would enter his service as her commander. I resultingly acquiesced, the brig being given up to him at Kealakekua, and called by him Kaahumanu * * *. I was accordingly honored on taking command with the Flag of his Majesty and a salute of 11 guns.”

This certainly refutes the general belief that the flag was made by Capt. Adams, as his own narrative shows a flag to have been here before him ; but
whether the present one or some other we cannot gather, for it is evident that there have been more than one. In another portion of his journal is an allusion to a flag—but also without description—that has no doubt given rise to the idea of his making the flag; where at Waimea, Kauai, at which port he had touched from Honolulu for supplies, en route for China, he notes: “Mch. 12, 1817, * * * Gave the King our ensign to hoist in lieu of the Russian, who said it was on account of his having no other.”

It is to be borne in mind that the allusion here is to the king of Kauai, and not Kamehameha, as Kauai was under its own King till 1821, and his possession of a Russian flag while the principal town was occupied by a Russian colony was not strange.

Finding these theories of Capt. Adams’ authorship exploded by his own writings, search was made in other directions with the following result. Vancouver, in his last visit, (1793) when he assured Kamehameha of England’s friendship and protection, gave him an English flag, which we find by Archibald Campbell, in his “Voyage round the World, 1806-1812,” arriving at these Islands Dec. 1808, that the English colors were used, for he says: “The King’s residence, built close upon the shore, and surrounded by a palisade upon the land side, was distinguished by the British colors.”

Jarvis [Jarves] states, (pp. 96) describing the period of about 1816, speaks of the flag, as somewhat similiar to the present, viz: “English Union, with seven alternated red, white and blue stripes.” This however is not coroborated by Lord Byron, in his “Voyage of the Blonde,” in 1825, in which he describes the flag as follows: “On all days of ceremony the Sandwich flag is hoisted on the forts; it has seven white and red stripes with a Union Jack in the corner.” (P. 121.)

This is almost the East India flag before described, and confuses the searcher after truth as to when the several changes took place. If Jarvis is correct in the flag he describes, and he certainly was in a position to know whereof he wrote, it is a grave error in the recorder of the “Voyage of the Blonde” to give so different a one nine years later. The present flag has eight stripes representing the Islands of the group-white, red and blue, with Union Jack in the corner. Capt. Hunt, who was here in the Baselisk [Basilisk] in 1845, is said to have changed the relative position of the colors of the stripes by placing the white on top instead of at the bottom, though there is a possibility of this being the time of adding the eighth stripe, Jarvis and Byron mentioning only seven. Capt. Hunt is also accredited with designing the Royal Standard now in use.

We leave the above subject as here recorded, trusting it will meet the eye of some one whose knowledge and memory will be freshened thereby to account the true history of the Hawaiian Flag, its origin, and parties interested in its formation.

[The original of this article is downloadable here at the University of Hawaii at Manoa’s EVOLS page! This publication is very useful for many random facts about Hawaii at the time. If you have not seen it before, you should go check it out!!]

Ad from the first issue of Kuokoa, 1861.






At this store, there are many items for men, women, and children; new goods from California.


Those who make purchases from this store will see the


at no cost.

Always flying is the Flag of the


at the entrace of this


[Notice how “Halewai” [lit., water house] is what they called John Thomas Waterhouse. Later for Waterhouse you will also see Walakahausi and Walakahauki.

The images to the left and right of “Nalo Meli” are of a bee hive with bees flying above it.

OH, and yes, it seems there was a camel…]

(Kuokoa, 10/1861, p. 3)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 1, Aoao 3. Okatoba, 1861.

William G. Kahuakaipia is killed in California, 1868.

Wiliama G. Kahuakaipia is Dead

Shot by an Indian with a Bow and Arrow at New Year’s Diggings, Mariposa County, California.

To the Heads of the Kuokoa; Our Aloha:—

We are sending you this new gift, and it is for you to place it in some open space of our Greatest Prize (the newspaper Kuokoa) so that the personal friends living in Manoa, Oahu, of the person mentioned above, may see, along with the story below of his death.

At 5:30 in the evening of Saturday, the 15th of September, we went to the shop of John Paremal, and as we got closer to the store, there was a group of Indians getting drunk; and we got to the store, and finished our food shopping, then we hung around for a few minutes; and as we looked around at the nice items in the shop, the sun left on its usual path and the stars were seen twinkling in the heavens. That was when we got ready to leave, carrying our good by hand and on our shoulders; and while we were enjoying our way back, an Indian met up with W. G. Kahuakaipia while he was a bit away from us, and a half gallon jug of alcohol was taken from his hand, and he went after that Indian, thinking to retrieve the half gallon jug. Right then, another Indian came out from the shop and drew back his bow and the [arrow] flew and struck the chest; “and Kahuakaipia pulled out the arrow breaking the stone head off within,” (the arrow entered six inches). That was when he spoke his last words, with sadness and aloha.

O You guys! I am dead. Hey you guys!! and when we heard this call by our friend, we didn’t believe it was true, for when we saw the Indian pull back his bow, we thought that he wouldn’t let the arrow fly, but no, the weapon of the Ignorant [Waawaaikinaaupo] youth flew swiftly and struck our friend. And when we approached to see him, he already lay there, his last breath gone with blood flowing profusely from the wound. Right then we went to look for the murderer in the store aided by the light of a lamp and we found him in a room hiding under a couch; he was pulling back his bow, thinking to shoot one of us. But he was not able to because he was grabbed by us and tied up with rope and thrown into a secured building which we guarded all night until day. And on the next night, the news reached those living at Kanaka Camp, Tuolumne County, and when the men and women had gathered by where the body lay, then L. H. Kapua stood and read some passages from the Holy Book about the dead one, and after his talk, he read Hymn 67 (Wide is the path to go down, Down to eternal death). And after the hymn was over and the glorification of God, we carried the coffin with the procession following behind, and let it down into the depths of the bowels of the earth.

After the body was gone, a coroner’s jury of six was chosen by Hon. J. McPherson so that this murder case would be resolved quickly. With the questioning of the witnesses of both sides, and after the presentations by both sides were finished, come to find out, the murderer was set free by the stupid jury without them considering the testimony of both sides.

And on the 17th of that same month, we went before the district judge of La Grange, Stanislaus County, and when we were speaking of and explaining what was done by the past jury in the crime of murder, the judge immediately sent an officer to arrest the murderer, and he was found 16 miles away from where he took the life of our friend, and was taken to the jail of Mariposa.

Then on the 27th of November, this murderer was retried by a jury before Hon. J. F. Jones Probate judge, the head judge of Mariposa County. When everyone was gathered in the courthouse, each witness for both sides stood one by one, and after they were done with their statements, then the lawyer for the murderer stood and did his job of twisting right into wrong and wrong into right; and when the eloquent speeches by the lawyers of both sides were completed, the judge stood up and read the law dealing with murder and instructed the jury to carefully consider the testimony by both sides, and when he was done the jury went into a room. After half an hour, everyone gathered again in the courthouse and the judge read the decision of the jury. The murdering Indian will be taken to the great prison of San Francisco where he will be incarcerated for 10 years with hard labor; and the court was adjourned.

The is what was done in the two trials. We are true witnesses of the deceased. With appreciation.

Hon. John L. Kalani,

J. H. Wahinealoha,

James Ma,

Moses Nahora, Secretary.

Kanaka Camp, Tuolumne County, California.

November 29, 1867.

[I am not sure if this Moses Nahora and the Moses Naehola of the earlier post are the same person or not…

And how awesome is this, Mariposa County History page has a sponsor!]

(Kuokoa, 2/1/1868, p. 4)

Make Wiliama G. Kahuakaipia

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke VII, Helu 6, Aoao 4. Feberuari 1, 1868.

Hawaiians abroad and the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers, 1867.

“Let’s subscribe to the Newspaper

Kuokoa, the Greatest Prize of the
Hawaiian Nation.”


CALIFORNIA, March 25, 1867.

O My friends of the forests of California, “Let’s subscribe to the Newspaper Kuokoa, the Greatest Prize of the Hawaiian Nation,” that is the ongoing Volume VI of the year 1867, being that Volume V of this past year, is over, with the last week of December; we are grateful for its patient work done for us; it was not uncertain or hesitant of all the parcels sent upon it, but it persevered upon the surging billows of the Pacific Ocean until reaching this towering lands upon which we live. And thus we see the news of this sort and that, and the history of Kamehameha I., that is being published by the famed S. M. Kamakau in the Kuokoa. Therefore, don’t hold back, don’t scrimp, don’t be greedy, don’t be covetous, don’t surly, don’t scowl, don’t look to the side, don’t look away, don’t turn you back; lest these lines by the enlightened by applied to us. (Dark Africa, ignorant Asia), and so, let’s act quickly so that we can see the news of the world. I am done, aloha to you all. With thanks.


[For more on the serial by S. M. Kamakau, see: Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii, Tales and Traditions of the People of Old, Ka Po’e Kahiko: The People of Old, The Works of the People of Old, Ke Kumu Aupuni, and Ke Aupuni Mō‘ī.

As for Moses Naehola, does anyone know if this is the same person as Moses Nahora, who is also living in California during the same period?

One more thing… This article has an awesome listing of negative attributes (which by no means are adequately translated here). ]

(Kuokoa, 6/1/1867, p. 4)

"E lawe kakou i ka Nupepa...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke VI, Helu 22, Aoao 4. Iune 1, 1867.