Festivities at Hilo Union School, 1927.


This past Saturday there was held a fair on the school grounds of Hilo Union, under the direction of the parents of the students of this school.

The activities began at 1 in the afternoon until the evening. The classrooms on the first floor was where the work of the children being taught at that school were placed, so that the parents could view them. There were also flowers on display. There was also a large bag, and from within this bag an item was given to the the parents and the people who came.

In an area near the kitchen, there were tables of all sorts of goods from all the ethnicities. One of the tables was filled with all the many delicacies of the Hawaiians. Haupia, laulau, and the other good foods of the Hawaiians. On the table of the Chinese, there was Chinese foods like Chinese candy, rice made into sweets, and many other Chinese items. On the Japanese one, was Japanese goods, and so too with the Portuguese table, they had Portuguese bread. On all of these tables, the people taking care of the items were dressed in the clothing of their people.

Near the kitchen, there was a place decorated by Miss Alice Spencer. On this table, tea to drink was served by girls dressed in aprons of all colors skillfully [made?] by Miss Spencer. The decorations on these tables were identical to the clothes of the girls serving tea to those who wanted to drink tea. In one of the rooms all the way at the bottom of the school, a movie was shown, and this is something always done, and the teachers thought it would be good for the parents to see the type of movie seen all the time by the children. Below that play house of the children in times of rain, there were other activities to do, set up by the teachers, and it was thought that these activities would entertain the children, parents, and friends of this school.

[Just passed by Hilo Union the other day and thought I’d put this article up that I had put aside some time ago.]

(Hoku o Hawaii, 5/3/1927, p. 2)


Ka Hoku o Hawaii, Buke XX, Helu 49, Aoao 2. Mei 3, 1927.

Sweet Emalia is out in Honolulu! 1908.


Police Court Judge Frank Andrade this morning felt that he sat on the edge of an active volcano, for through the window over his starboard shoulder, up from the pit at the bottom of which in a cell grovelled Sweet Emalia, came discordant beseechments for a renovation of the universe and the making of a new world.

It was difficult to size up the merits between a man with an attacking hoe and a gentleman with a damaged cow when such sounds soared benchward.

“Has not the doctor been sent for to examine Sweet Emalia?” inquired His Honor.

Chief of Detectives Kalakiela stated that he had been summoned.

Then Emalia took up singing, having torn her garments to shreds, and this was less upsetting that her howling and cursing.

Emalia was taken to the station about breakfast time today from the parish of Kalihi. Neighbors rang in, calling loudly for Thwing or Parkhurst, declaring that a large lady who had forgotten her wardrobe was roaming the streets. The patrol wagon hurried out and Emalia was found without covering, making morning calls on the neighbors.

When she sighted the hurry-up she hastened to her home and donned a garment in which she was taken to the police station. There having the covering of a cell, she found the clothing superfluous and straightway made fricasee of them. She is alleged to be insane.

A lolo or stupid boy received the court’s attention. He was charged with vagrancy, sleeping in sawdust in the back parlor of a planing mill. He was open-mouthed and stare-eyed and committed to be examined with Sweet Emalia by Dr. Moore, Dr. Emerson taking a vacation.


[After coming across this article from 1908 showing Sweet Emalia out in Honolulu, I am now thinking that the Emily Kaihumua sent to Kalawao in 1906 and being examined there in 1909 by Dr. Goodhue might not be the same person…

Hopefully one day soon, all the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers will be rescanned clearly so that if there is ever enough money to do once again an OCR project, or a hand transcription project, it can be done accurately so that hopefully we can find each and every available article that could clarify what became of Emalia, or any other person or event in Hawaiian history for that matter!!]

(Hawaiian Star, 8/13/1908, p. 5)


The Hawaiian Star, Volume XVI, Number 5708, Page 5. August 13, 1908.

Kokua being sent out of Kalawao and Kalaupapa, 1894.

To be Discharged.

Here below is the list of assistants [kokua] living in Kalawao and Kalaupapa who are being sent away.

Kaaihue (m), Kawika (m), Kalaeloa (m), Keliikipi (m), Makakoa (m), they are from Kohala, Hawaii. Nailima (m), Ku (m), S. Keanu, Kekua (m), Kaaikauna (m), Manua (m), Manua, Jr. (m), Kaoo (f), Kealohanui (f), Malia (f), and Kaia (f), they are from Maui along with Mele Paulina. Pukooku (m), Nailima 2 (m), Kamakau (m), Kalehua (f), and Umi (f), from Kona, Hawaii. C. Kopena, Hokela (f), and Keonaona (f), they are from Honolulu. Mihi (f) and Pahukoa (m), from Niihau. Alaala (m) and Hamea (f), from Kauai. Kanuha ka, from Ewa. Maiuli (m), from Molokai. Kahananui (m), Kamaka (m), Auau (m), Pookela (f), Maleka (f), it is not known where they are from. Kapoi (f) and Kaiakonui (f), from Kalaupapa. Hanaloa (m), from Hilo. Kapeka (f), from Waipio. Apikaila (f) and Kekuni (f), from Kohala.

Here are the kokua that are married. Kaaihue (m) to Kaoo (f), Kanua (m) to Pookela (f), Kamaka (m) to Kapoi (f), Keliikipi (m) to Kaleiolono (f), C. Kopena to Keonaona (f), Kaaikauna (m) to Apikaila (f), Alaala (m) to Hamea (f).

Here are the kokua who are married to a patient: Nailima (m) to Kealoha (f), Pahukoa (m) to Keoho (f), S. Keanu to Maikini (f), Manua, Jr. to Kaiwaokalani (f), Hanaloa (m) to Kalehua (f), Hokela (f) to Lopaka (m), Mihi (f) to Haili (m), Malia (f) to Punohu (m), Umi (f) to Punilio (m), Mele Paulina to Huelo Poki, Kekuni (f) to Kane (m). Most of the kokua live mixed in with the patients. As for Kaiakonui (f), she is married to A. Hutchison, the current Superintendent.

(Makaainana, 2/5/1894, p. 2)

E Kaiehuia aku ana.

Ka Makaainana, Buke I—-Ano Hou, Helu 6, Aoao 2. Feberuari 5, 1894.

Detailed list of patients being examined at Kalawao, 1909.


To the Editor of the Kuokoa, Aloha no: Please allow me some space on your deck along with the captain’s passengers travelling aboard your ship (newspaper) and it is for you and your sailors to [anybody care to offer insight into this nautical allusion? “a nau ame kou mau luina e kulai pau iho i na nihoniho o ke ku’e keleawe o ka enekini uwila…”] and to send knowledge from Hawaii, the island of Keawe, all the way to Kauai of Manokalanipo.

Here are your loved ones, a husband, a wife, a child, a grandchild, a daughter, a grand, a great grand; and they turn towards home, to see and to smell once again the cool air of the land (should they return); the fish is an uku, a fish of Kahoolawe.¹

O Reader, shown will be the names and the years they have lived here in the land of the sick without counting the months and days.

Therefore, the number placed before [after] each name is the total years lived here in the land of the sick and the land where they were taken from; for the names without numbers, they don’t want it to be known, and some have not met with the writer; the writer put great effort into completing it, but he could not for it was a big task.

At 11:30 at night on the 13th of October, 1909, the S. S. Likelike arrived at the restless harbor of Kalaupapa; the wind was calm, but the disembarking of the passengers was still rough, they being J. D. McVeigh, Superintendent of the Leprosy Colony; Dr. Wayson; photographer Charles W. Weatherwax and Kikila the secretary of the doctors.

On the 14th, at 9 or so, the doctors W. J. Goodhue and Wayson arrived with the Secretary J. K. Keliikuli, interpreter at the dispensary; and the examination of the patients began; and to Kalawao went the honor of the first examination, as follows:

P. Kiha (m), Maui; Mary Maialoha (m), 3, Kawaihae, Hawaii; Heaekulani (m) 21, Honolulu; William Holokahiki (m), Waihee; Kinoole (f); Sarah Opu (f), Moloaa, Kauai; S. Kapela (m) 4, Honolulu; Ane Naholoholo (m) 15, Honolulu; Kealawaiole (m) 4, Honolulu; Ui Kapiioho (m); Holo Kapela (f) 17, Maui; L. M. Paianamu (m) 6, Honolulu; John Kaiu (m) 7, Kauai; George Mahiai (m), Maui; K. M. Kalunakaahele (m), Kauai; John Keawekane 4, Honolulu; Hulihee (m) 14, Molokai; Wehekaiaulu (m); Lau Chan (m), Honolulu; Naolulo (f) 1, Hilo; George Kahoukapu (m) 3; Kealoha Nalima (f) 22; D. Moae (m) 21, Kohala; Kekuni (m); Loika Pauole (f), Kauai; Pahupiula (f) 20, Honolulu; Lizzie Aiakamanu (f) 8, Kauai; Elia Kaaihue (m) 4, Puna; Kawai Hoy (f) 3, Honolulu; D. Noholoa (m) 13, Honolulu; Ellen Noholoa (f) 5, Honolulu; Solomon Momoa (m) 20, Honolulu; William Kaha (m) 24, Paholei, Maui; Kela Liilii (f) 25, Hawaii; Kaluna Ma (f) 30, Kipahulu, Maui; Sam Lowell (m) 4, Honolulu; Makanui D. Umi (f) 6, Honolulu; Pahia (m) 4, Kauai; Makanui (f) 8, Hanalei, Kauai; Kalani Silva (f) 6, Honolulu; Hattie Kalua (f) 4, Honolulu; Kawehi (m) 24, Lahaina; Kailiau (m) 3, Kohala; Mary Naeole (f), Kauai; Kaomi (m); Kalani (m); Palea (m); Pakoma (m) 3, Kauai; Joe Kauhane (m) 15, Honolulu; George Kahele; Komo (m); Pekelo (m), Honolulu; James Harvest (m) 18, Honolulu; Pika (m); Kahawaii (f) 4, Honolulu; Kelii Makakoa (m) 11, Honolulu; Hanapule (f) 4, Honolulu; J. A. Kamakele (m) 7, Kona; D. Ku (m) 22, Honolulu; Victoria Kaai (f) 20, Huelo, Maui; Kanamu Mokuhau (f) 20; Kamai (m) 8; Kaulana (m) 6, Molokai; Rose Meyers (f) 3; Kauwe (f) 3, Hilo; Nahua (m) 16, Kona; Kuhi (m) 4, Molokai; Ponepake (m) 22, Honolulu; Naihe Pukai (m) 22, Kauai; Halemano (m) 5, Honolulu; Hairama Pahau (m) 15, Honolulu; Annie Kekoa (f) 3, Hilo; Kaua Lihau (f) 14, Hamakua; C. Kaeha (m) 4, Honolulu; Kawaha (f) 26, Kauai; Liloa (m) 4, Maui; Kunihi (m) 28, Molokai; Kamai Naihe (f) 25, Honolulu; Nui (f) 28, Hilo; Kaaihue (m) 39, Maui; Emma Kuaokala (f) 4, Hilo; Kailianu (f) 80, Kalaupapa; Emily Kaihumua (f) 4, Honolulu; Maulia (m) 13, Honolulu; Annie McMillan (f), Honolulu; Ellena McMillan (f); Joe Lowell (m) 3, Kauai; Agnes Holstein (f), Kohala; Lui Hoolapa (m), Kona; D. N. Hoopilimeaai (m) 10, Maui; Malaia (f) 10, Kauai; Huleia (m) 16, Kauai; Pelekila Ioane (f) 4, Maui; Mary Kapukana (f), Hawaii; Peter Akua (m), Maui; Kuheleloa Nailima (m) 13, Kalaupapa; Kahaleuai Nailima (m) 12, Kalaupapa; Hoaeae Nailima (m) 14, Kalaupapa; William Kalimalu (m) 10, Hilo; Kanaue (m) 10, Honolulu; Kinoole (f) 27; Willie Kalani (m) 20, Puako, South Kohala; Moses Pauli (m) 21, Koolau, Oahu; Kahaleanu (m) 13, Hilo; Lilia Kepano (f) 4, Honolulu; Alika Smith (m) 19, Wailuku, Maui; Kaele (m) 20, Honolulu; Kawaiku (m) 6, Hana; K. Keaweamahi (m) 15, Honolulu; M. Mattson (m) 7, Maui; Mary Smith (f) 8, Honolulu; Ah Sin (m) 5, Wailuku; Kea Kaihanui (m) 21, Waihee; Charlotte Kaopua (f) 4, Kohala; Mary Ann (f) 4, Honolulu; Kakalina (f); Ah Sin (m) 3, Kohala; John Moke (m) 22; Alika (m) 23, Maui; William Kaleiheana (m) 13; Meliaka (f) 17, Kauai; Julia Manuia (f) 7, Waialua; Hukia Manu (m) 16, Maui; Sarah Alohikea (f) 20, Kohala; Mose Kaulahea (m) 2, Molokai; Mary Mokuahi 19; John Waiwaiole (m) 4, Hilo; Keala Kaike (f) 1, Puna, Hawaii; Kalani wahine (m) 3 months, Waimea, Hawaii; Mary Kamealani (f) 8, Kawaihapai, Waialua; Sam Kaluahine (m) 7; J. Uha (m) 22, Lahaina; Koloa (m) 20, Maui; Maraea Holokahiki (f) 3 months, Kalaupapa; Hawea Manini (f) 4, Wailuku, Maui; total 133.

There are names left; perhaps they are those who knew the troubles ahead, for the road ahead is unclear, as the path is not laid out well, and some will return in confusion; wise are those who did not sign, but there will come a time when this will end.

With great aloha,


Kalawao, Molokai, October 19, 1909.

¹”He uku ia he i’a no Kahoolawe.” A traditional saying playing off the word “uku “which is a type of fish, but also means reward or recompense.

[Wow… this took a long time, but i think it is an awesome document well worth the time put in. My aloha goes out to S. K. M. Nahauowaileia and the type-setting boys of the Kuokoa!!]

(Kuokoa, 10/29/1909, p. 6)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLVI, Helu 44, Aoao 6. Okatoba 29, 1909.

Why bother learning the Hawaiian Language—a response, 2013.

Hawaiian Language Benefits All

…For all of the rare-in-the-world success that Hawaiian language revitalization has achieved in four decades, only a fraction of it has been paid for by public funds. For every dollar that’s ever been spent on teacher salaries, school rooms or curriculum, 10 times that has been expended from the pockets or personal schedules of people who dedicated their lives to making sure Hawaiian wasn’t erased by the sweep and force of English dominance. The kupuna who gave all of their golden years to learners and the teachers who create lessons from scratch are the tip of the iceberg. Unlike other places where government support of indigenous efforts is now the norm, most of the investment in Hawaiian language and culture always has been a people’s project. Hawaiian is the foundation of Hawai’i’s unique identity and knowledge base, not a useless adornment to a place with nice geography. That mind-set loses everything that makes these Islands so special. Money spent on keeping Hawai’i connected to its past and present isn’t hush money to assuage and entertain the natives, it’s an investment in Hawai’i’s continuity.

[Click here for the rest of this response to Bob Jones’ article (MidWeek 4/24/2013) which we put up in the previous post, written by Puakea Nogelmeier in the current issue of MidWeek.

What do you all think?]

Why bother learning the Hawaiian Language? 2013.

Are Hilo Projects Money Well-spent?

Somebody surely will ask: Why are we spending $28 million in state money for the College of Hawaiian Language building at UH Hilo?

Why put all that public money into Hawaiian language when we need funds for command of the English language and delving into American political history and contemporary culture issues?

[Click here to read the rest of this piece of work penned by Bob Jones which appeared the other week in the MidWeek!]

More on patients being examined at Kalaupapa, 1909.


To the Editor of the Messenger of the Lahui, the Kuokoa Newspaper, Aloha no: Please allow me some space of your light body, and it will be for you to carry it away so that the many friends may see, here are their parents, children, grandparents, grandchildren, and great grands turning towards home. All of the names below will probably not be released from this grave; perhaps some.

There are a total of 108 names were shown to the writer and he has 55 of the names, but not 53. Here are the names and their doctor:

George Kukapu (m), Dr. W. J. Goodhue; Kawai (f), Dr. Goodhue; William Limalu (m), Dr. W. J. Goodhue; William Kaha (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kela Liilii (f), Dr. Goodhue; Kealawaiole (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kaua Lihau (f), Dr. Goodhue; Pelekila Ioane (f), Dr. Goodhue; Hanapule (f), Dr. Goodhue; Kauwe (f), Dr. Goodhue; Lizzie Aiakanu (f), Dr. Goodhue; Kelii Makakoa (m), Dr. Goodhue; Annie McMillan (f), Dr. Goodhue; Ellen McMillan (f), Dr. Goodhue; Emily Kaihumua (f), Dr. Goodhue; Herbert Kaleleiki (m), Dr. Goodhue; Mary Kapukana (f), Dr. Wayson; Kanaue (m), Dr. Wayson; Kalaia Makaula (f), Dr. Wayson; David Ku (m), Dr. Goodhue; Jeo Kauhane [? Joe Kauhane] (m), Dr. Goodhue; Annie Kekoa (f), Dr. Goodhue; Peter Akim (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kalunakaahele (m), Dr. Goodhue; Leong Tun (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kailianu Kapiioho (f), Dr. Goodhue, Kala Opu (f), Dr. Goodhue; Rose Meyer (f), Dr. Goodhue; Liloa (m), Dr. Goodhue; Pahupiula (f), Dr. Goodhue; Emma Kuaokala (f), Dr. Goodhue; Lovell (m), Dr. Goodhue; Holo Kapela (f), Dr. Goodhue; Hairama Pahau (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kaaihue (m), Dr. Goodhue; Hulihee (m), Dr. Goodhue; Makanui D. Umi (f), Dr. Goodhue; Nui (f), Dr. Goodhue; Agnes Holstein (f), Dr. Goodhue; Hoaeae Nailima (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kuheleloa Liilii (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kahalewai Nailima (m), Dr. Goodhue; Mary Naeole (f), Dr. Goodhue; Bainamu (m), Dr. Goodhue; Solomona Momona (m), Dr. Goodhue; Pakoma (m), Dr. Goodhue; Victoria Kaai (f), Dr. Goodhue; S. K. Maialoha (m), Dr. Goodhue; Mary Maialoha (f), Dr. Goodhue; Kaeha (m), Dr. Goodhue; James Harvest (m), Dr. Goodhue; Kamai Naihe (m), Dr. Goodhue; Jeo Waiwaiole [? Jon Waiwaiole] (m), Dr. Goodhue.

With my great aloha to my beloved lahui.



Kalawao, Molokai, August 27, 1909.

[See the very bad image of a similar article printed in the newspaper Ke Aloha Aina which I posted last year.]

(Kuokoa, 9/3/1909, p. 6)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLVI, Helu 36, Aoao 6. Sepatemaba 3, 1909.

Emalia Kaihumua in Kalaupapa and more, 1909.

The News of Kalaupapa.

Aloha no:—

Please be so kind as to allow a space on your deck for the few news items of this land of the sick, and it is for you to carry it away.

Movies are being showed all the time here, and the patients are very happy. There was an announcement for the patients who want to be seen by the doctors, an a portion of the patients came to the house of the doctor to sign up as per the offer. There were some people who hesitated and did not go to sign up. And as a result, the Doctor and the Superintendent sent a man from the workshop [hale oihana] to go amongst the houses to sign up those who wanted to be examined by the Doctor. The total of those who went to sign their names is 55, and they are who are listed below and the doctor they chose:

The Men. George Kukapu, William Limalu, William Kaha, Kealawaiole, Kelii Makakoa, Herbert Kaleleiki, D. Ku, Joe Kauhane, Peter Akim, Kalunakaahele, Leong Tung, Liloa Lovell, Hairam Pahau, Kaaihue, Hulihee, Hoaeae Nailima, Kuheleloa Liilii, ???? alewai Nailima, Bainamu, Solomon Momoa, Pakoma, ??? Kapela Maialoha, Kaeha, James Harvest, Naihe and Jon Waiwaiole, Total 27.

The Women. Kawai, Bela Liilii [? Kela Liilii], Kaua Lihau, Pelekila Ioane, Hanapule, Kauwe, Lizzie Aiamanu, Ane Mcmillan, Ellen Mcmillan, Emily Kaihumua, Ane Kekoa, Kailianu Kapiioho, Kala Opu, Rosse Meyer, Pahupiula, Rmma Kuaokala [? Emma Kuaokala], Loika Pauole, Holo Kapela, Makanui D. Umi, Nui, Agnes Holstein, Mary Naeole, Victoria Kaai, Mary Maialoha and Kamai Naihe. Total 25. These patients above are for Dr. Goodhue. For Dr. Wayson. Mary Kapukana (f), Malaia Makaula (f), and Kanaue (m). Total 3. The people who signed up at their own homes total 53; all together that makes 108, counted along with those chosen by the Legislature [Ahaolelo].

With great aloha for my lahui.



Kalawao, Molokai, Aug. 27, 1909.

(Kuokoa Home Rula, 9/3/1909, p. 3)

Na Mea Hou o Kalaupapa.

Kuokoa Home Rula, Buke VII, Helu 36, Aoao 3. Sepatemaba 3, 1909.

Mothers’ Day, 1913.

The Day for Mothers, May 18.

This coming Sunday, May 18th, is the day to remember Mothers; the symbol of that day is the White Carnation [Poni Moi] placed on the suit of men, and on the fronts of women and children. It shows you remember your mother who took care of you from when you were a baby until you were an old man or woman. Whether she has died or she is still living.

(Kuu Hae Hawaii, 5/9/1913, p. 11)

Ka La o na Makuahine Mei 18.

Kuu Hae Hawaii, Buke I, Helu 3, Aoao 11. Mei 9, 1913.