Astronomy, 1909.

The Hawaiian Astronomy.

It is a great pity that David Malo, the Hawaiian Historian and Antiquarian, did not preserve in his “Moolelo Hawaii” or Hawaiian Antiquities, some account on Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy. S. M. Kamakau, a contemporary of David Malo, and also a writer on the Ancient History of Hawaii nei, is little better off, about this matter than his colleague. He wrote an article on “Instructions in Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy” and was published in the Nupepa Kuokoa of Aug. 5th, 1865. It was translated into English by Prof. W. D. Alexander for Maile Wreath (Lei Maile), and was republished by Mr. Thos. G. Thrum, in his “Hawaiian Annual” for 1890.

In the year 1885, we found in the monthly newspaper, “Ka Hoku o ke Kai,” that subject was treated again, only to last a very short time. And about twelve or thirteen years ago we again found certain very valuable statements pertaining to the Ancient History of Hawaii by Kanalu, said to be the priestly ancestor of the priesthood or order of Kanalu.

We saw in “The Journal of the Polynesian Society,” Vol. XVI, No. 2, an article on “Tahitian Astronomy” by Miss Teuira Henry. It treats the “Birth of the Heavenly Bodies.” It is very interesting.

In order to preserve these accounts relating to Hawaiian Astronomy, we give our English translation here, starting first from the account in Ka Hoku o ke Kai (1885).

In ancient times, the class of people studying the positions of the moon, the rising and setting of certain fixed stars and constellations, and also of the sun, are called the kilo-hoku or astrologers. Their observations of these heavenly bodies might well be called the study of astronomy. The use of astrology anciently, was to predict certain events of fortunes and misfortunes, victory or defeat of a battle, death of king or queen, or any high chief; it also foretells of pestilence, famine, fine or stormy weather and so forth.

The old Hawaiians knew some names of certain planets and several constellations. The names of planets are somewhat slightly different in corresponding English names, rendered by Andrews, Alexander and the late Dr. Bishop.

HAW. NAMES OF PLANETS ANDREWS. ALEXANDER. BISHOP.
1 Ukali Mercury Mercury Mercury
2 Hokuao
Hokuloa Venus Venus Venus
Mananalo
3 Holoholopinaau Mars Saturn Mars
4 Kaawela Venus (an evening star) Jupiter Jupiter
5 Naholoholo Saturn (See No. 3) Saturn

The Hawaiian name for Mars according to Prof. Alexander is Hokuula (red star). In the newspaper “Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika,” published about the year 1860, the name for the planet Saturn was Makalii, Kauopae for Jupiter and Polowehilani for Mars.

(To be Continued)

(Kuokoa Home Rula, 4/2/1909, p. 2)

The Hawaiian Astronomy.

Kuokoa Home Rula, Buke VII, Helu 14, Aoao 2. Aperila 2, 1909.

Old Kuokoa “Paper Boy”, 1923.

This is a picture of Maui Kaiko, one of the paper boys of the Kuokoa, along with his new hat. Maui Kaiko is 70 years old now, yet he is just as lively selling newspapers as the youngsters of town, and by selling newspapers, he has everything he needs in life.

[Notice how the word “keiki” is not only used for young boys (or children in general), but is also used how we use it today, as in: “Maui boy” or “local boy”…]

(Kuokoa, 6/14/1923, p. 4)

O keia ke kii o Maui Kaiko...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LXII, Helu 24, Aoao 4. Iune 14, 1923.

One more on the Hawaiian Flag issue of the Kuokoa. 1862.

THE KUOKOA.—The number of this native paper for January 1st, appeared on the last day of December, and was warmly greeted by the native population who are in ecstacies over it. Indeed they have good cause, for as a specimen of the typographic art, it will compare favorably with any paper published anywhere in the world; and this in a land which forty years ago was peopled by savages. Surely they cannot now complain of a want of good newspapers and plenty of news; and we judge they value the Kuokoa, for they pay in their subscriptions for it with a cheerfulness and promptness not exceeded by foreigners. In order that our subscribers who are not versed in the language may have some idea of its contents, we will state here what they are:

1st page.—Song to the New Year,

Items of Foreign News,

The Hawaiian flag, with its history and a song.

Account of one of the Battles of Napoleon I.

2d page.—Editorial, Circuit Court Report, Local News.

A song to the Kuokoa.

3d page.—Communications, Meles, Price Current,

Marine Record, Births, Marriages and Deaths,

Almanac and Advertisements.

4th page.—Late Foreign News, including war news,

The Mexican troubles and threatened invasion by Spain, &c.

Daring Exploit of Capt. Strong.

Arrest of the Rebel Commissioners Mason and Slidell.

A Lamentation to Mrs. Martha Ii.

Advertisements, &c., &c.

The above will give an idea of the contents and matter of the native paper. But to appreciate the change from the old style of newspapers prepared for them, foreigners will have to read for themselves. Some of the communications are as keen, sharp-witted and sarcastic as any productions in English, while some few of their meles or lamentations, abound in illustrations of poetic beauty and thought. The lamentation to Mrs. Ii, on the fourth page of that paper, written by her brother at Hilo, is such. The Hawaiian flag printed in colors, and the new heading, attract general attention. The paper will serve as a curiosity to send abroad, and we notice that many are procuring copies for mailing. It will do more to give our nation and flag a notoriety abroad, then a dozen of Mr. Wyllie’s proclamations of neutrality.

[There actually was a replica done of this issue of the Kuokoa by Hoolaupai: Hawaiian Newspaper Resource (which currently either lies dormant or has gone defunct). I heard word that it was going to be reprinted once again a number of months ago, but it seems that did not happen…]

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 1/2/1862, p. 2)

The Kuokoa.

The Pacific Commercial Advertiser, Volume VI, Number 27, Page 2. January 2, 1862.

More on the Hawaiian Flag in the Kuokoa. 1861.

A BEAUTIFUL NUMBER.—The next issue of the native newspaper Kuokoa—the number for January 1, 1862,—which will appear on Monday next, will be ornamented with the HAWAIIAN FLAG, printed in colors—red, white and blue. As printed, it will afford a specimen of the typographic art, seldom seen in any country, and will be a curiosity worth mailing abroad. Indeed, we have never seen a national flag worked off in three colors in a newspaper. When to this we add, that the engravings were made and all the printing done by native Hawaiians, those who see the paper, with the Hawaiian Standard floating in it in colors, will participate with us in the pride we feel at the successful execution of this difficult job. The name of the young man, to whom we are mostly indebted for the engraving and successful completion of this word, is JAMES AULD, a Hawaiian, who has served his apprenticeship in our office.

—The Kuokoa is rapidly increasing in popularity with the natives, and now numbers nearly 3,000 subscribers. The present edition is about 3,500 copies. Copies can be had for 12½ cents each.

[The added information of James Auld here shows that it is important to not only get information from the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers, but the other language papers hold good information as well!]

(Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 12/26/1861, p. 2)

A Beautiful Number.

The Pacific Commercial Advertiser. Volume VI, Number 26, Page 2. December 26, 1861.

The Hawaiian Flag—a closeup. 1862.

“The Beautiful Flag of Hawaii,
Let it forever wave.”

[The image of the Hawaiian Flag as it appeared to the readers of the Kuokoa in 1862! (Courtesy of the library/archives at the Bishop Museum.)

The Library and Archives at the Museum holds so much priceless information! They need more funding to do important things!!]

"Ka Hae Nani o Hawaii...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 6, Aoao 1. Ianuari 1, 1862.

History of the Hawaiian Flag. 1862.

“The Beautiful Flag of Hawaii,
Let it forever wave.”

The Hawaiian Flag

We are pleased and happy about the Hawaiian Flag printed above, and the people subscribing to Ka Nupepa Kuokoa will be delighted to see it. We display the Flag, urged to do so by our great aloha for our King, Queen, and Ka Haku o Hawaii, their son, as well as for our Nation. The love by the people for their flag of their country is customary, and when they see her fluttering, it fills their hearts with joy.

The printing of the Flag in a Newspaper is something new, along with the displaying of its colors*. This is something not done previously here, as well as in some foreign countries. Perhaps our friends will inquire as to who did this work. Some Hawaiians did the work, people from this Archipelago, and they were taught to do this in our Printing Office. Here is how it was done: Woodblocks were carved in the fashion of the flag using two blocks. When it was printed, first the blue was printed, allowed to set, then the red was printed. This printing was done solely by Hawaiians. Such is the intelligence of the kanaka maoli, and that is how we recognize it. If we are instructed to do any task under the sun, Hawaiians can do the same as the white-skinned people.

If you should want to see this, you should support Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, and urge your acquaintances and friends to pay the two dollars a year. If you would kindly help, you will see many things that will gladden and instruct you.

You, O fluttering Flag,
The proud blossom of Hawaii.
Established by Kamehameha the great,
With Spear in hand, with strength,
Flutter over Hawaii and Niihau, and give protection.
Beneath your wings,
So that the peace of Hawaii be known,
By her King and the people as well.
The cross on your crest that Britain holds dear,
The Nations of Europe also give acclaim,
You are the Flag of old,
The time of Kamehameha the great,
The bravest warrior of Hawaii,
He who joined the islands,
With unity from end to end,
Living as one in contentment,
Along with the Spear upon which he erected,
The steadfast Nation of Hawaii.
We rejoice, and rejoice for all time,
His famed accomplishments,
You wave there above,
The crown of Iolani, the king
While giving shelter,
To Emma, the Queen.
Along with Ka Haku o Hawaii.
The Royal child of Iolani and Emma,
And Kalohelani, the Regent, Victoria Kamamalu.
The loving aunt of the young lord, Prince Albert,
Do remember his His Highness, Lot Kapuaiwa,
Cleansing the fruit of the pandanus in the sea,
Your fluttering has garnered
The peace that allowed us to seek,
The knowledge that has come,
To the Hawaiian populace.
That year long ago.
You were taken from your proper place.
Not a year passed,
You were raised by the loving hands of Admiral Thomas.
The one you fondly recall,
On the day of his death when it approaches,
You will wave there, O beautiful Flag.
O symbol of Hawaii’s Independence ;
Here is your body, being brought.
Before your beloved people,
By the Newspaper called,
Ka Nupepa Kuokoa of Hawaii,
The Excellence of your Nation.
A garment that adorns the Hawaiian People,
Wave forever.
Over the beloved sea of Mamala,
We, Hawaii, will cherish always,
The eternal glory of thy name.
The Hawaiian Flag! The Hawaiian Flag!!
The Flag of the Islands of Kamehameha IV.

This Flag was first designed in the year 1816 for Kamehameha I.

The King, wanting a ship to sail to China to sell Sandalwood, searched along with John Young, Isaac Davis, and Captain Alexander Adams of Kalihi, who is still living, for a Flag for the ship. It was a man-o-war, called the Forrester, carrying sixteen guns. Kamehameha I owned the ship.

When the Flag was completed, the ship sailed to Macao. The Flag was puzzled over, and was not accepted as a National Flag. The ship was charged exorbitantly for harbor fees, the Sandalwood was sold for a loss, and the ship returned to Hawaii.

The King learned of this loss, and he said that a tax should be placed on the harbor of Honolulu like those of foreign lands. That is when duty was first charged for the harbor.

In 1843, the 25th of February, this Flag was taken down by Lord George Paulet [Lo Keoki], with the intent that this Archipelago be taken as a possession of Great Britain. The British flag was raised on flag poles all around the land, until the 31st of July of that year.

It was Admiral Thomas who restored the Flag, for he disputed the actions of Lord George Paulet.

[Notice the English column to the left, which gives a translation of the Hawaiian. It seems this issue of the Kuokoa was sent to home by many a missionary, to show the progress they were making…

*A word of clarification: This is not the first time color appears in a newspaper. For more on this topic, see Hana Hou Magazine, August/September 2011: “Read All About It!” by Ron Williams.

For more flag articles, just click here!]

(Kuokoa, 1/1/1862, p. 1)

"Ka Hae Nani o Hawaii...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 6, Aoao 1. Ianuari 1, 1862.

Subscription complaints, 1912.

[Found under, “Local News”]

There have been many letters arriving at this office saying that people’s newspapers have not been delivered; as if their papers have been taken by cheats, or perhaps they are being held back by the company for lack of payment of debts.

(Kuokoa, 2/16/1912, p. 8)

He nui na leka ninau i hoea mai...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLVIII, Helu 7, Aoao 8. Feberuari 16, 1912.