What they were reading 100 years ago.

THE TALE
OF
Kepakailiula
THE FIERCE ONE AND
FEARLESS WARRIOR
OF
HILO HANAKAHI A THE
FAMOUS ISLAND OF
MOKUOLA, JUTTING OUT IN THE SEA

(An Old Story of Hawaii Nui Kuauli)

(INTRODUCTION)

The writer of the moolelo needs to explain first about some things people say about this famous Moolelo of the old days of Hawaii nei so that all sorts of thoughts will not well up in our readers of this moolelo. According to the beliefs of some who memorized this Moolelo of Kepakailiula, he was born in Kaakea, Waipio, and below that famed valley of “Beautiful Waipio where the cliffs face each other,” is where he was raised as a favorite. Continue reading

Advertisements

Great Meeting of December 28, 1891 at Manamana, 1891.

MASS MEETING.

The Native Sons of Hawaii to the Front.

RESOLUTIONS AGAINST A REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT ADOPTED.

Over six hundred people, Hawaiians and foreigners, were present at the mass meeting called by the Native Sons of Hawaii, and held at the Gymnasium on Monday evening. Many prominent natives were present and listened to the discourses of their wise leaders with attentive ears. Long before 7 o’clock streams of people were seen wending their way towards the Gymnasium. The Royal Hawaiian Band, under the leadership of Prof. D. K. Naone, was stationed on the makai end of the hall, and discoursed most eloquent music for over thirty minutes.

J. K. Kaulia, the Secretary of the Native Sons of Hawaii, called the meeting to order at 7:45 p. m.

Hon. A. Rosa was elected chairman of the meeting. On taking the chair, he said that he came as spectator only. He was not a candidate for the coming elections, and he was not a member of the society. He asked the audience to conduct the meting in an orderly manner, so that nothing would mar the success of the object in view.

Isaac D. Iaea was chosen secretary and Mr. Rosa interpreted the speeches in English.

The Chairman called upon the Rev. J. Waiamau to open the meeting with prayer which was done.

A. Rosa said: The subject for discussion this evening is, “Our denunciation against adopting a Republican for of Government for Hawaii.” You are at liberty to express your views, whether pro or con. The first speaker—J. L. Kaulukou—will speak against the Republican movement. The time allotted to each speaker is limited to ten minutes.

J. L. Kaulukou—Mr. Chairman and gentlemen: We are assembled here to-night because false rumors are being propagated abroad that we, native sons of the soil of Hawaii, are in favor of a Republican form of Government. Our bitterest enemies are doing their utmost to spread this unfounded report. It is our duty tonight at a mass meeting assembled, to notify the world at large that the aboriginal Hawaiians are body and soul against such a movement. We do not favor annexation either with America or with any other foreign power. We have called this meeting because foreigners abroad are entertaining this idea, which is most derogatory to our interests. Hawaiians are not the only one concerned in this question; foreigners, too, who have adopted Hawaii as their home; they have a right to stand up and denounce this movement. [Applause.[ A queen now reigns over us. It is our duty as loyal citizens to do our utmost to perpetuate the throne of Hawaii. England cherishes her Queen, and we should adore our Queen. Our ancestors have been accustomed to a monarchial form of government, and we, the younger generations, have been instilled with undying loyalty to our sovereign. Our forefathers considered “love of the throne, love of country and love of the people” as one, but we have divided it into three distinct persons. I will now read to you the following resolutions, carefully prepared by a committee of the Native Sons of Hawaii: Continue reading

Inez Ashdown and the Paniolo, 1939.

Cowboys of Hawaii Nei

By INEZ ASHDOWN

There are numerous books about cowboys. Some are written by the cowboys themselves, others were compiled by admiring friends. Whatever the manuscripts, all were written by those who wished to keep alive the old traditions and the romance of the western United States.

Yet while some of the finest American cowboys are those born and raised in Hawaii, no one has ever written about the native paniola and little is heard of them except for occasional news items, or, as during the recent Hoolaulea, one or tow are included in the general publicity.

Who were the first cowboys in Hawaii, who are the cowboys of today, where do they live and what do they do other than rope cattle and ride broncos?

To answer these questions research similar to that done by David Malo and the first missionaries when they endeavored to separate legend from actuality, would have to be followed. Yet who, in this modern day, can remember some long-forgotten mele telling of the first cowboys to visit this group of islands?

That they are Mexican or Spanish is known, because the name “paniola” is a derivation of the term “Espanol.” Some of the present day cowboys will tell about a father or grandfather who was of the Latin people.

Jack Aina, one of Maui’s most popular knights of the saddle, will say “Ai. My father Mexican. Those first paniola bring noho (saddles), kaula (rope), kaula waha (bridle), kipa (spurs), and all the things we get today.”

Aina is past 60, but is still the fastest shipping man and one of the best ropers on the island, and younger men will stand watching and shouting “Aina! Hu ka makani!” (Aina, go like the wind!) as he dashes out of a corral on his big shipping horse, a bawling crow-hopping steer at the end of his 20 foot manilla line, and into the sea with a fountain of spray.

The larger his audience the better he works and laughs and indulges in horse-play, particularly if there be present any malihini. Later, after he has washed and oiled his saddle and bridle, and done himself up in fancy shirt, chaps, boots and kipa pele (jingly spurs) and topped all the finery with a ten-gallon hat he enjoys singing and dancing the Hula for his Boss and guests.

He is now horsebreaker and trainer for Angus MacPhee at the Maui Agricultural Company’s Keahua stables where the Kahoolawe and company horses are kept. He is a master at braiding kaula ili (rawhide ropes) and uses most of his spare time for this and for putting fancy work on saddle or bridle, for he takes pride in his “jewelry” and “watches his shadow” as all fancy cowboys do.

He worked at Ulupalakua ranch when Mr. MacPhee was manager there, in company with the famous roping champion, Ikua Purdy, who is foreman of the ranch. Ikua who knows ranch work from A to Z, who jogs quietly along but seems to know by instict where the pipi ahiu (wild cattle) will be hiding. Then as they “scare” he and his horse unwind like clockwork, to rope and tie like lightning.

Aina knew old Hapakuka, now dead, whose sons quietly carry on his famous work and name. And Kinau, who looked like an ancient time warrior, and who brought to mind that first noted horseman, Kamehameha the Great, whose horses and cattle, the first in Hawaii, were brought as gifts by Vancouver and Cleveland in 1793–4.

Those first animals were placed under a ten year tabu by the Hawaiian monarch, and that tabu was probably the beginning of the wild cattle which roamed the mountain slopes of Hawaii and Maui until ranchmen who wished to have pure bred cattle and thoroughbred horsses, killed them off. Today’s roping does not need the wild riding, the pinning of roped animals to pipi kauo (pin oxen), any more than kaa pipi (bullock wagons) are needed for hauling.

George Davis of Hawaii was another of the ranch’s finest, working with Willie Purdy and his brothers, Moku Smythe, George Swift, and many others who have moved away or have died, but who remain unknown although their stories would equal, and, in some instances, surpass, many stories told of heroes of the old West.

There is another paniola man on Maui who is an artist as well as a cowboy. This Hawaiian Charlie Russel is called John Lihau Kaaihue and is foreman of the cattle work at Honolulu ranch. He is 41 years old, was married in Kaupo in 1919 and is proud of his fine wife and nine children. Six husky boys and three pretty girls who help Father with the chores, or Mother with housework or the preparing and weaving of lauhala.

Lihau can make a fine saddle tree and cover it to perfection, can strip and scrape a green hide for braiding a fine kaula ili, makes his own ili kalapu (knee leggings), ordinary leggings, or chaps; repairs the family shoes when they need half-soling, makes most of the household furniture, and can repair anything from a pan to a roof.

He makes canoes and boats, fish nets, lauhala hats or mats, and likes to employ old Hawaiian methods whenever possible. But in those akamai (clever) fingers, according to trained artists who have seen his carvings, is genius.

Charlie Russel, famous cowboy artist, liked to fashion little figures of men, horses or other things from candle wax as he yarned with the cowboys in a Wyoming bunk-house. His picture, The Last Stand, according to an old story, was given by him to a saloon owner in payment of a board-and-keep bill, and the owner later refused an offer of several thousand dollars for the now famous picture. Yet Russel did not, as he joked and worked with the men, believe he would someday be famous.

Nor did Lihau, a few months ago, think that he was doing exceptional carving with his pen-knife. He often does carving for friends just to please them. But some weeks ago he found a friend who was very much disturbed. The vocational school at Kahului had made a fine table of monkey pod wood and the owner desired that the legs of the table be carved as an akua (god or idol).

The only artist available for the carving had asked a prohibitive amount, others had no time or honestly admitted that they did not believe they could do justice to the exceptionally fine piece of wood.

Lihau inspected the table, looked at a drawing made by the owner, studied some old history pictures of ancient idols, and finally said quietly that he could do the work.

At the friend’s glance of incredulity Mrs. Lihau nodded and announced that indeed John could carve anything, when he had spare time.

Two weeks later they brought the table back to town from their ranch home. It was taken by the enthusiastic owner to the vocational school principal, Ernest Hood, whose own beautiful native-wood furniture is famous. At the school the coffee table was polished and completed, and people from all parts of Maui have called at the owner’s home to see that and other carvings done by Lihau, and mats made by his wife.

One and all agree that genius created this masterpiece of art and legend, for with a few deft lines the wraith of an akua rises from the “flames” of the wood-grain.

Lihau listens to their praises, accepts their congratulations, while his wife smiles proudly, and returns home to his family and his work wondering why they all give him so much attention, for he is a quiet unassuming man who does not look for attention but who does things because they are his jobs or because he wants to. And he would not be guilty of turning out poor work of any sort.

Is he a throw-back to those old ancestors who carved idols from forest trees for the ancient temples? Or is it just simply that real cowboys must use their heads and hands to such a degree that they can do anything they wish to do?

Lihau has had very little schoolhouse training, no one has ever taught him of Art and its principles, and he does most of his carving with his knife, although he does have a few tools now which were lent by a friend.

While he works at his hobby he teaches his boys also just as he teaches them to rope and to ride and to save time a trouble by learning to think quickly, such as at the time of the big flood at Punalau.

He was driving a truck-load of laborers home from the pineapple fields but when they came to the gulch the road was impassible. He could take the men back to the main camp where they might be able to stop with friends or get food at the ranch store and sleep in the big garage used for trucks, but that meant a lot of bother for everyone concerned, and the use of a great deal more gasoline.

Why not swim? But eighteen of the men could not swim enough to breast those swirling waters rushing to an angry sea.

Eighteen times Lihau swam back and forth across the flood to take the non-swimmers to a spot from which they could easily reach home, while others stood grouped about watching and wondering just how long the man could stand the strain.

When the last man was across Lihau turned his truck, drove it back to the garage and arrived home a little late for supper. He was bothered a bit by hunger because his habit is to eat breakfast, skip lunch, and eat a hearty meal at evening.

Ranch work and its life are always varied, interesting and romantic. Other walks of life may be as exciting, or so much more dangerous that all the fun is lacking, but for sheer freedom and soaring of the spirit no other work is more satisfying than that done by the cowboy. And of all the cowboys in the world there are none who are more joyously reckless, more dependable in tight spots, more full of song and versatility than the paniola of Hawaii.

Outstanding among them are always Eben Parker Low and Ikua Purdy, whose names and skill are known far and wide even as of their haole friend, Angus MacPhee of Wyoming, whose champion roping record of 1907 still holds first place, and who is a kamaaina here.

These men are known, but there are many fine paniola whose names have never been heard outside their home ranches or islands, and among these is Lihau, the cowboy-artist of Maui.

(Hoku o Hawaii, 4/26/1939, p. 6)

Cowboys Of Hawaii Nei

Ka Hoku o Hawaii, Volume XXXIII, Number 52, Page 6. Aperila 26, 1939.

David Malo and a prediction, 1894.

The prediction of David Malo.

Nearly 50 years ago, after the sunday service was let out from the Wainee Church in Lahaina, while it was Davida Malo who gave the prayer that sunday, Kaahumanu said to Davida Malo, “Our missionaries are good.” Davida Malo then replied to Kaahumanu, “The missionaries of ours will conspire against us [kipi].

“Tsa! How will they revolt, being that it was they who brought the word of God?” To which Davida Malo answered, “Perhaps they will not revolt, but the children after them, and the grandchildren after them; they will be the rebels.

“And the Alii who is ruling as Monarch at the time, that Alii will stand bare. And the Nation built then, that is the Nation that will stand securely.”

How astonishing is this great foresight of David Malo! and everything he predicted [wanana] has come true, except one remains, and then everything will have come true.

And we believe that all of this will come true.

(Leo o ka Lahui, 9/7/1894, p. 2)

Ka wanana a David Malo.

Ka Leo o ka Lahui, Buke II, Helu 1022, Aoao 2. Sepatemaba 7, 1894.

A composition by Davida Malo, 1864.

A mele by David Malo.

O Nupepa Kuokoa; Aloha oe:—Some subscribers of your newspaper have asked me to send in to you a mele by David Malo written for his wife, Pahia. And should it please you to print it once more, being that it is not offensive, and it is fine thing for the youth to read with aloha. Therefore. Here below is the mele:

Oia aloha kiai ka ula hailiaka,
I ke ohana lau opua haili aloha,
He-ae he aka,
He aka he haili aloha no kuu wahine eia e,
Kuu wahine mai ka ua lili lehua hee-koko,
Makau pili heekoko ula i ke kula,
Ula kana wai ula i Kanaha e,
Naha kaawale ka pili me ka wahine,
Me kuu wahine aloha i nalo aku la,
I hele hookahi aku nei aole,
Aole kuu hoa eia e,
Kuu hoa pili i ka ua ulalena,
He ua ulalena no Lilikoi,
Kuu wahine hoapili o ke anuanu,
Kuu hoa pupuuanu oia uka,
Oia aina koekoe ke noho,
E loku ana iloko o ka io ka hoi,
Ka li anu, haukeke a ka ua kiu,
I kahi a maua e noho ai,
Me kuu wahine i ka ua hamakualoa e, he loa e,
Loa wale hoi ka noho ana a ke aloha,
E kau ana ke aloha i kuu maka,
E haka loa nei no aole i pau,
Ke aloha o kuu wahine aole i nalo e eia e.

S. Lohiau.

Pauoa, Oct. 12, 1864.

[David Malo’s wife died on January 5, 1845, and this kanikau is first printed in the newspaper Nonanona, 3/18/1845, pp. 113–114.]

(Kuokoa, 10/15/1864, p. 3)

He mele na David Malo.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke III, Helu 42, Aoao 3. Okatoba 15, 1864.

Autobiography of Joseph Kawai Opunui, 1929.

THE STORY OF JOSEPH KAWAI OPUNUI AND HIS DESCENDANTS

Joseph Kawai Opunui was born on June 16, 1853 of Hapuku Opunui (m) and Kauhailama Waiwaiole (f) at Kalapana, Puna, Hawaii; and when he grew older, he would go around Kapoho, Puna; and when he was 15, came to Honolulu. Here he entered the English school at Kawaiahao in 1868, on the 3rd day of the month of May; David Malo was the teacher there. He stopped attending that school on July 20, 1870, and entered the Royal School of Kehehuna [Kula Alii o Kahehuna] in 1871. He left that school on April 6, 1872 and went to work for C. P. Ward [Ka Pepee] at Old Plantation as a grass cutter, as a pond worker at the pond of Koula, and as a coconut tree planter of the coconut grove growing there to the present.

He took a wife on October 6, 1873, and had his first child on September 29, 1874. My wife gave birth in Honolulu.

I took care of the jitney cart [kaa kika-ne] for my boss, Mr. Ward, for wages of four dollars a week. That was a lot of money in those days. After that, I went to work for Henry May & Co., food purveyors, weighing coffee, rice, sugar, potatoes, and so forth. They pay was ten dollars per week. I stayed with that employer until they merged with J. T. Waterhouse and McIntyer under the company name of Henry May & Co. It is still in operation today.

From there, I went to work for the government on roads for $1.25 a day, for 15 years. This was under the territory, and then 12 years under the county. I am retired now, but am receiving a pension.

This past 16th of June, I made 76 years old.

We have 1 son and 3 daughters from our loins;

Philamina, Joseph, Christina and Kealohapauole.

Philamina had 17 children. She was married twice. Her first husband was Herman Kaouli, and the second was William Keiki. With him she had six children, and with H. K. Ha’o she had eleven children.

The second child of Joseph Jr. died at the age of three.

One child is living in China. Kealohapauole is childless.

Between Philamina and Herman Kaouli, 2 children are living; with H. K. Ha’o, 2 children are living.

The first child is Margaret; the second child is Victoria. Margaret married J. Kaakua, and they had two children: Mary Laniwahine (deceased) and the second child, Hiram K. Kaakua.

Victoria married Isaac K. Kaawa and they had three children: Thomas K., Margaret Kahalelaulani, and Victoria.

The one living child of William K. Keiki is Clara, and she has five children: Philamina Nohokula, Manuel Kawai, Clara Hiilani, William Weheikekapu, and Frank.

Andrade is the name of Clara’s husband, and he is the father of those children.

I have three generations. With aloha.

Joseph Kawai Opunui

1805 Kalani St., Honolulu.

[I came across this interesting autobiography the other day. Usually, this type of information is submitted by someone else when a person dies, but here, Joseph Kawai Opunui is telling his own story.]

(Alakai o Hawaii, 6/27/1929, p. 4)

HE MOOLELO NO JOSEPH KAWAI OPUNUI AME KANA MAU MAMO

Ke Alakai o Hawaii, Buke 1, Helu 9, Aoao 4. Iune 27, 1929.

Astronomy, 1909.

The Hawaiian Astronomy.

It is a great pity that David Malo, the Hawaiian Historian and Antiquarian, did not preserve in his “Moolelo Hawaii” or Hawaiian Antiquities, some account on Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy. S. M. Kamakau, a contemporary of David Malo, and also a writer on the Ancient History of Hawaii nei, is little better off, about this matter than his colleague. He wrote an article on “Instructions in Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy” and was published in the Nupepa Kuokoa of Aug. 5th, 1865. It was translated into English by Prof. W. D. Alexander for Maile Wreath (Lei Maile), and was republished by Mr. Thos. G. Thrum, in his “Hawaiian Annual” for 1890.

In the year 1885, we found in the monthly newspaper, “Ka Hoku o ke Kai,” that subject was treated again, only to last a very short time. And about twelve or thirteen years ago we again found certain very valuable statements pertaining to the Ancient History of Hawaii by Kanalu, said to be the priestly ancestor of the priesthood or order of Kanalu.

We saw in “The Journal of the Polynesian Society,” Vol. XVI, No. 2, an article on “Tahitian Astronomy” by Miss Teuira Henry. It treats the “Birth of the Heavenly Bodies.” It is very interesting.

In order to preserve these accounts relating to Hawaiian Astronomy, we give our English translation here, starting first from the account in Ka Hoku o ke Kai (1885).

In ancient times, the class of people studying the positions of the moon, the rising and setting of certain fixed stars and constellations, and also of the sun, are called the kilo-hoku or astrologers. Their observations of these heavenly bodies might well be called the study of astronomy. The use of astrology anciently, was to predict certain events of fortunes and misfortunes, victory or defeat of a battle, death of king or queen, or any high chief; it also foretells of pestilence, famine, fine or stormy weather and so forth.

The old Hawaiians knew some names of certain planets and several constellations. The names of planets are somewhat slightly different in corresponding English names, rendered by Andrews, Alexander and the late Dr. Bishop.

HAW. NAMES OF PLANETS ANDREWS. ALEXANDER. BISHOP.
1 Ukali Mercury Mercury Mercury
2 Hokuao
Hokuloa Venus Venus Venus
Mananalo
3 Holoholopinaau Mars Saturn Mars
4 Kaawela Venus (an evening star) Jupiter Jupiter
5 Naholoholo Saturn (See No. 3) Saturn

The Hawaiian name for Mars according to Prof. Alexander is Hokuula (red star). In the newspaper “Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika,” published about the year 1860, the name for the planet Saturn was Makalii, Kauopae for Jupiter and Polowehilani for Mars.

(To be Continued)

(Kuokoa Home Rula, 4/2/1909, p. 2)

The Hawaiian Astronomy.

Kuokoa Home Rula, Buke VII, Helu 14, Aoao 2. Aperila 2, 1909.