Great granddaughter born to Samuel K. Kekoowai, 1922.


A letter arrived from my granddaughter informing her tutu that she brought forth into this world of light, a daughter from her loins, on Thursday, the 12th of this October, 1922, at 9:30 a.m.

She asked also for me to name that great-grandchild of mine, and so I followed through and gave the ancestral name, Miss May Kaaoliko Kahalakupumaikai-o-Aina-manuhaaipo Manouluae. Continue reading

Translation of G. W. M. Reynolds’ “Kenneth: A Romance of the Highlands,” 1865.


He Mooolelo no Sekotia.



I ka mahina o Sepatemaba, M. H. 1493, i ka wa a ka la e pii ae ana mai ka ili kai ae, a e kiei mai ana kona mau kukuna maluna o na mauna Garamapia; i ka wa a ke kahuhipa e hoa ana i kana pu-a i hanai ia ai i na mauu uliuli o na puu. Ike ia aku la kekahi wahine e hele ana i ke kulanakauhale o Edineboro, me ke keiki e hii ana ma kona lima.

O ua wahine nei he kanakolu ka nui o kona mau makahiki, me he mea la he wahine ui ia i kona mau la. A i ka wa i ike ia ai ka wahine me ua wahi keiki nei, ua kahakaha ia kona mau maka e ka popilikia, a ua noho ia kona mau papalina e ka hakahaka a me ka pololi, a o kona aahu ua weluwelu, koe nae ke kihei i wahi ia ai kahi keiki, ka mea nona ka mooolelo, oia wale no kahi mea maemae iki. I ke awakea, hiki aku la ua wahine nei me kahi keiki mawaho o kekahi pakaua, a noho iho la ia maluna o kekahi pohaku paepae; kuu aku la ia i ua wahi keiki nei, a hoouna ae la ia i ka uwe ana iho ka u ole, a mokumokuahua iho la ka naau o ua wahine nei, i ka lohe aku i ka uwe mai o ke keiki. A i ka poeleele, hiki aku la laua nei iloko o ke kulana kauhale, mamua ponoi iho o kekahi hale hiehie i hoomalamalama ia i na kukui; ua uhiia na papakaukau o ua hale nei i na mea ai o na ano a pau.

[This is the opening to one of the early large-scale translations of a foreign story published in the Hawaiian Language Newspapers. This telling of G. W. M. Reynolds’ “Kenneth: A Romance of the Highlands” by John M. Kapena, runs in the newspaper Au Okoa from its inaugural issue on 4/24/1865 to 12/10/1866.]

(Au Okoa, 4/24/1865, p. 1)


Ke Au Okoa, Buke I, Helu 1, Aoao 1. Aperila 24, 1865.

Maui story of Eleio, the kahu of Kakaalaneo, the alii, by W. N. Pualewa, 1863.





WE PERHAPS SHOULD SPEAK here of Eleio, the caretaker of Kakaalaneo, an Alii of Maui, and thereafter, let’s speak of Kaululaau, the actual child of Kakaalaneo and a chiefess of Hawaii, Kelekeleiokaula, the daughter of Kaleihaohia, a chief of Hawaii.

It is said that Eleio was a kahu of Kakaalaneo, an Alii of Maui, and it is thought that Kakaalaneo was the fifth generation of Maui Chiefs. If their genealogy was laid out properly from Kumuhonua to Kakaalaneo, then it would actually come to five generations.

But in speaking about Eleio, we must speak about him.

Eleio was a fast runner, and because of Eleio’s speed, Kakaalaneo chose Eleio to fulfill his needs in very far places.

This is how we will see how fast Eleio was.

When the Steward of Kakaalaneo was preparing the poi and the ti-leaf wrapped fish of the Alii, at that time, the Alii sent Eleio to go get awa for Him; and the feast of the Alii would begin with the arrival of the awa fetched by Eleio.

But the location of the awa that Eleio was to fetch for the Alii was at a place very far, and that place was in the Koolau side of Maui, at a place named Waiohue.

 If Eleio went to get the awa at Waiohule when the ti-leaf wrapped fish was not cooked, he would return before the meal of the Alii began. This is something Eleio did all the time, fetching the awa for the Chief; the place the Chief lived was mauka of Kekaa, that hill standing at Kaanapali, makai side of Kealakikeekee a Maui.

[This is the beginning of the story of Eleio, it begins in the Kuokoa from 9/5/1863, and concludes on 11/21/1863. This story was written down by W. N. Pualewa (who seems to have died at Kalawao on 12/26/1873).

The closing by Pualewa of his telling of the story is interesting:

And there is this, at this point, we will end our Story of Eleio and Kaululaau; because, we have come to the place where there is great entanglements, and not because the Story is completed, but because of the complexity of putting into order, for there are five sections left of this Moolelo, and within those five parts, divided are the branches of the alii, the genealogy of the kahuna, and the ancestors of the kanaka, and because of this difficulty, I am ending Kaululaau at this Section, and it is for someone that is versed in the Moolelo who should fill this empty space of the paper. With thanks. W. N. Pualewa.]

(Kuokoa, 9/5/1863, p. 1)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke II, Helu 36, Aoao 1. Sepatemaba 5, 1863.

A Kauai story of Kauilani by Samuela Kapohu, 1869.


The wondrous one of the forests of Kawaikini in Wailua, Kauai, and his descendants thereafter.

Published by Samuela Kapohu.

{Because we were asked by the public to print Hawaiian and haole Stories in our newspaper, and being that the newspaper is for the people, therefore, we agreed to print the Hawaiian Kaao below. However, we ask pertaining to the deceitful words and the superstitious words of the olden days, those are not something for us to believe in; it shows the great ignorance of our lahui of that time. As for the sins and obscene words, they are to be deleted by the writer of the Kaao from what he writes.}


A clarification.—This kaao has not been seen before in one of our Newspapers; but it is beginning to be shown amongst the communities of Hawaii nei.

However, if there are deletions or perhaps my telling of this kaao is unskilled, don’t object straight off, but when my telling is over, then that other person should put his out as he understands it to be true. And this is a story from Kauai, as shown in the title above, but he did not live only there, his descendants populated Oahu and moved all the way on to places of Kahiki and other lands. But before I speak about this, I will explain first where this kaao originated. Like this:

Here are the royal kupuna from Mano; Kauilani is the one who this kaao is about of which we are speaking.

Manokalanipo (m) dwelt with Anuukaumakalani (f), born was Pihanakalani (f). Hookau (m) dwelt with Pihanakalani, born was Kalekoki (f). Hapulauki (m) dwelt with Kaleikoki (f), born was Kauhao (f). Keahua (m) dwelt with Kauhao, born was Lepeamoa (f) and Kauilani (m). Kauilani (m) dwelt with Ihiihilauakea (f), born was Kamamo (f). Waialua (m) dwelt with Kamamo, born was Kawaiki and Kekauila. And so forth all the way until the ancestral root.

The pregnancy of Kauhao, and its discarding by Keahua, and it was cared for by Luakaikapu [the grandmother] when it was born.

[And so begins Samuel Kapohu’s telling of the story of Kauilani. This serial appears in the Kuokoa from 9/18/1869 and concludes on 2/12/1870.]

(Kuokoa, 9/18/1869, p. 1)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke VIII, Helu 38, Aoao 1. Sepatemaba 18, 1969.

Prince Leleiohoku’s glittering gold bar, 1922.

[Found under: “Makalei, ka Laau Pii Ona a ka I’a o Moaula-Nui-Akea i Kaulana”]

Ko ma’i auka gula laa ke,
Lilelile lua nei la a u.
Ono paha i ka wai la a ke,
Nana nuu ke poo laa u.
Inu nei a e holu la a ke,
Luhi a loha i ka wai la a u.
Maluna ka wilina iho la a ke,
Oni e a olalo la a u.
Hainaia ko ma’i la a ke,
Holu ae nape i ka wai la a u—


[Many times mele are used to enhance stories, and there is no telling where you might find a mele, old or new. This procreation chant for William Pitt Leleiohoku for instance is included in this story to add to the mood following a description of the deeds of the “kalohe”.]

(Kuokoa, 2/17/1922, sec. 2, p. 2)

Ko ma'i auka gula laa ke...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LXI, Helu 7, Mahele Elua, Aoao 2. Feberuari 17, 1922.

Story of Kamehameha by Walter Murray Gibson, 1880.

The Story of Kamehameha.

O Hawaii’s own! we are putting forth the beginning of the story of your famous Alii, the fearless conqueror of the Kingdom, the one whose name is spread and is famous all around the world. The Owner of this paper, the one who is writing, has had ample time to prepare. In 1862, Piianaia was met with and spoken with, and his recollections were written down; much was heard from Chief Kekuanaoa. These two men knew the nation conquering chief; much was heard from S Kamakau, and from J. H. Napela of Wailuku, and from some other who were familiar with the stories of those times gone by. Should there be any problems with what is written by the writer of the story of the famous  warrior Chief of Hawaii, he hopes that he will be corrected by Hawaiians who know more and are more familiar. And thereafter he will publish the story of of the one who established the Monarchy of Hawaii as a book, embellished with many fine illustrations so that the proud story of Hawaii’s great man is known by all of the children of the world. Welcome it and subscribe to it at once, so that you get all of the many columns of this story.

[This is an announcement for the story of Kamehameha called, “Kamehameha! Ka Na_i Aupuni!” which runs in the Elele Poakolu from 10/6/1880 to perhaps 11/24/1880 (without a conclusion). Unfortunately, this newspaper is not available online as of this date.]

(Elele Poakolu, 10/6/1880, p. 4)

Ka Moolelo o Kamehameha.

Ka Elele Poakolu, Buke I, Helu 5, Aoao 4. Okatoba 6, 1880.

David Hauola Makekau and “Leahi,” 1919.


Pekupekuiki.—This is the name of the first flagpole put up in the palace grounds; it was erected by King Kamehameha IV; and this flagpole stood on the Ewa side of the Kauikeaouli gate (the King Street gate); between the gate and Haleponi, “the Coronation Building” (the gazebo and bandstand that stands now). For this flagpole is the u-keke song composed by that spry one of Lahaina, David Hauola Makekau:

Auhea, uhea oe,
Auhea i uhea oe.
E kuu hoa, kuu hoapili,
E kuu hoa, kuu hoapili.
I ka leo uluulu,
I ka leo weliweli o na ʻliikoa.
O kuu hoa oe, o kuu hoa oe,
O ka malu ohai o Kanikauwepa.
O ka hae kalaunu o Pekupekuiki.

It was this D. H. Makekau who indeed composed this mele:

Aia i Leahi Daimana Hila,
Ka hoku ao ka ale ka i Mamala,
Malama pono oe i ka poe pele,
O ili kaua i ka apiki.
Ua ana pono ia na huahelu,
E pili aku ai i ka uwapo.
Haawi ke aloha lululima,
Me na huapala makaonaona.
Kau aku i ke kaa oni ka huila,
Pa iho ka uwepa iwakiani.
Aniani na hana i ka hookele,
I ka lawe no a kikiipau.
Hainaia mai ana ka puana,
Aia o Daimana Hila i Leahi.

He composed this song for Miss Makilo, a hanai child of Mr. Pinehaka [? William Pinehasa Wood], one of the well-known men of Honolulu nei, in those days he lived there [? oiai ua la o ke aina ae o ia].

The first four lines of the mele are what the Honorable J. K. Kalakiela recently took to as part of his election speech adding, “Have a heart!”

[The awesome things you find while watching Merrie Monarch! This description is found in an awesome treatise on place names of Honolulu, “My Familiarity with the Land of the Kukalahale Rain,” which runs in the Kuokoa from 12/20/1918 to 1/24/1919 (although it indicates there is to be more to come), describing famous places of Honolulu in days gone by, written by the Anela o Mekiko, Gabriel K. Keawehaku.

Mahalo to the boys of Na Kamalei o Lililehua for their lively hula inspiring me to do a little searching.

For more on the gates of Iolani Palace, click here for Nanea Armstrong Wassel’s post!

For more on the Hale Poni, again click here for Nanea Armstrong Wassel’s post!!]

(Kuokoa, 1/24/1919, p. 3)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVII, Helu 4, Aoao 3. Ianuari 24, 1919.