Tahitian mele for La Kuokoa, 1861.

Songs of Polapola

Aue oe tau hoa hele e,
E fiteri tou e,
Tai ta pea ta te fa tu,
O Iesu ta haa maitai.

Eau ia oe te oa oa,
Eau ia oe te haa maitai,
Ia oe nae te fei a haa wale,
I loto i te au ahi oia nae.

Aue oe e ta Moi e,
He aroha to oe,
Mai horoa i te hau ia Mareta,
E ta pea maitai.

Iaorana oe e ta Hatu o Hawaii,
Tai haapao ia tai haapao hia,
E mono i tooe toloa.

Iaorana oe e Ema,
Te Alii Vahine e,
Faatere maitai to otou haue,
E mau te ora o te Alii e amuri no atu.

Auwe oe tou hoa he re e,
Pi te ri tou e tei ta pea i ta te fatu,
Oietu te parau maitai,
eau ia oe te oaoa,
Eau ia oe te haa maitai,
Ia oto nae te feia faa vare,
I roto o te au ahi oia nae.

Auwe oe e ta Moi e,
E aroha to oe e,
Mai ho roa i te hau,
Ia Amerita,
E ta pea maitai mai,
Iaorana oe e ta Hatu Hawaii e,
Tei haa pao hia i mano to oe to roa,
Iaorana oe e Ema te Rii vahine e,
Faa te re maitai to otou hau,
E mau te aroha o te Rii e,
Ea muri noatu.

Himeni 27.

1 Te ra, te aoae, te fetia,
Maramarama ai te ao,
Maitai atoa ai te po,
Na te Atua i faaue iho,

2 Ia ara, e ia moe tatou,
Te merahi maitai tei mau,
To ratou tiai ia tatou,
Aore e ino i roohia mai.

3 Te rai anaana i nia ae,
Te aihere rii i raro nei,
Te miti atoa e ati ae,
Na te Atua i hamani.

4 Te puapua, noanoa,
Unauna ai te raau nei,
Te raau maa na tatou a,
Na te Atua i horoa mai.

5 Te ata i pee, te ua i pou,
Te matai farara e oraʻi,
Te manu, i rere nei,
Te mau puaa nana anae,

6. Te ia e tere i te tai,
Tei nee i raro i te repo,
Tatiou atoa te taata nei,
Ohipa na te Atua mau.

7 Ia hamanihia ra tatou
Ia hau tu teie i te maitai,
E ia ra oe ta te Arii parau,
Ma te aau au i a rue ai.

[These are some of the mele performed on the 28th of November, 1861, at Kawaiahao Church in celebration of Independence Day.

For more Tahitian mele, see this composition of Ninito and Manaiula Sumner for Victoria Kaahumanu from 1862.]

(Kuokoa, 12/2/1861, p. 2)

He Mele Polapola.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 4, Aoao 2. Dekemaba 2, 1861.

The Ninth Independence Day, 1852.

Chamberlain’s Notice.

The public are hereby notified that Sunday, the 28th of this month, being the ninth Anniversary of the Joint-Declaration of Great Britain and France to respect the independence of this Kingdom, the day will be kept on Monday, the 29th, as a holiday in the usual manner.

Their Majesties, the King and Queen will hold Court in the Palace at half past 7 o’clock, in the evening, whereat there will be a public reception.

Strangers, (Ladies or gentlemen) desirous of being presented, are requested to bring with them cards signed by the Consuls of their several nations.


Chamberlain’s Office, Nov. 12, 1852.

[The 9th anniversary of La Kuokoa was celebrated under the reign of King Kamehameha III, Kauikeaouli and Queen Kapakuhaili.]

(Polynesian, 11/20/1852, p. 110)

Chamberlain's Notice.

The Polynesian, Volume 9, Number 28, Page 110. November 20, 1852.

La Kuokoa information and more… 1700–1999.

For those of you interested, i came across this British Newspaper Archive site. It is unfortunately not free access. But if you want to know what their newspapers were saying about Haalilio and Richards and Paulet and Charlton as it all was going down (or other events that occurred between 1700–1999), it might be worth paying the subscription. Here for example there seem to be some four-thousand articles in the 1840s found using the search term “Sandwich Islands”:


And for the same period, there are five hits for “Haalilio”:


[Being that it is a pay for view site, i don’t believe that i would be able to repost articles found there even if i spent the money for a subscription myself…]

45th La Kuokoa celebration, 1888.


This coming Tuesday, November 28th, is the forty-fifth year celebration marking the recognition by the Heads of the Nations of Great Britain and France of Hawaiian independence; this day is set aside as a holiday all across the land. In other lands which enjoy independence through learning and enlightenment, independence day is seen as a day of rebirth for the nation and victory. These are great events found in the history of Hawaii’s friendly international relations; this is a distinction not received by any other island here in Polynesia; it has been nearly half a century that we remain proud of her unwavering  independence—progress—and enlightenment.

Long Live Hawaii Under God.

[On this the 170th anniversary of La Kuokoa, what are you doing to remember the great efforts taken by those like Timoteo Haalilio and William Richards to gain independence for the Nation?]

(Kuokoa, 11/24/1888, p. 2)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XXVII, Helu 47, Aoao 2. Novemaba 24, 1888.

More on Hawaiian Independence Day and Aloha Aina, 1843.


“Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise.” Proverbs [Solomona]

Book 2. HONOLULU, OAHU, JANUARY 17, 1843. Paper 17.

Here are some letters from Haalilio; people will surely be happy to hear from him and Mr. Richards that their travels are going well.

Weletabu [Vera Cruz ?], Mexico, Nov. 2, 1842.

Dr. G. P. Judd,

My dear friend, much aloha to you and your entire household. Here am I, your friend, with feeling aloha for you. The two of us [Haalilio and Richards] arrived here on the 29th of October, and we are awaiting a ship to ride. Hear me, I am doing fine, I have no illness; my health is fine now. However, I do not know how it will be when we get to the cold lands; perhaps it will be alright, and perhaps not. Hear me, we have travelled about this expansive land with peacefully, we were not troubled, we were cared for well by the Lord, until arriving here. But our bodies are spent after the long road. The days were extremely hot and extremely cold; we got drenched by the rain and snow, we passed through mountains, and rivers, and the wilds here in Mexico; we swam the water of rivers running by the face of the mountains, during the day and the night. In the cold and the heat, we endured hunger, riding on the backs of mules all day long. But I was certain that Jesus was with us in this friendless land. And that he blesses us. He takes care of the two of us, and our bodies are not troubled or hurt. He supplies us with all of our needs. He has welcomed us always amongst good friends; and there, we were given comfort and help on our path.

Listen to this, I’ve seen the towns of these lands; they are countless, and I have seen Mexico the great Town of the president [alii]. I’ve also seen the silver mines, and how they work silver; we’ve been to the legislature of the alii and his residence. Those places are grand to see. And today I am with health, giving my aloha to you and your wife and the children; give your [my?] aloha to all the friends there, and to Hana folks and to your people and to my household, and to the land and to the chiefs.

Aloha between us, Let us live through the Lord; until we meet in joy once more.

Timoteo Haalilio.

Mexico, Weletabu [Vera Cruz ?], Nov. 8, 1842.

O D. [G.] P. Judd,

Much Aloha to you; we received your letter on this day, the 8th of Nov., 1842. And we’ve understand all that was within. I have much aloha for you, and for all of you. How sad for all the alii, and how sad for Kapihi! We have been blessed this day in seeing your letter. There is much aloha for us all and our homeland. We are travelling aboard the American warships, Falmouth [Falamaka], to New Orleans [Nuolina]. A steam-powered American warship arrived, a huge vessel, 247 feet long and 2,400 tons. As I watch her sail by steam, it is a fantastic sight; she is so swift, with no comparison; this is the first time I’ve seen a steamer, and I am totally captivated by it.

Much aloha for you; here we are safe, steadfast in our duties we swore to.

Aloha to you.  T. Haalilio.

The two of them are headed to Washington aboard the steamer, a warship named Missouri, and perhaps they will land in Washington in 9 days.

[Does anyone know if Weletabu in Mexico is Vera Cruz, or if it is somewhere else?

Also, who is the Hana and the Kapihi mentioned here?]

(Nonanona, 1/17/1843, p. 81)

Eia mai kekahi mau palapala no Haalilio mai...

Ka Nonanona, Buke 2, Pepa 17, Aoao 81. Ianuari 17, 1843.

Time to remember and to celebrate, 1861.

Perhaps everyone knows that this newspaper is being printed on the 28th of this month, November, and likewise, all of you probably know what occured on this day, making it a day to remember; that being this.

1. This day, the 28th of November of every year, is a fitting day under the Constitution and Laws of the King, and a fitting day for all Hawaiians to celebrate; for this is the day upon which the great nations of Great Britain and France agreed to the independence of the Archipelago of Hawaii, under the protection of each of their Sovereigns, and that Hawaii join the other great independent nations as per international law.

2. This day, the last Thursday of November, the 28th of this month, is the day decided upon by the American Board of Missionaries, to be a day to honor the Trinity, while giving thanks and appreciation for the blessings He bestowed upon us, and a day to ask Him what we would like to be done by Him from here forth.

Upon these two ideas are the basis of what the newspaper Hoku o ka Pakipika wants to expound upon for all readers, while we feel hesitant about our words lest they be spit back out by those who call themselves perfect; but being that the time has come for the newspaper to speak about this day, it steps forward to speak, for there will be no other opportunity in its first volume where the date of November 28th will appear; and in the following second volume, it will once again speak to you about the 28th of this month. Therefore, it desires to speak and make clear the important reasons this day is set aside, and it will begin with the first stated reason, thus:

1. This day, the 28th of November… is the day upon which the great nations, Great Britain and France agreed to the independence of the Archipelago of Hawaii, under the protection of each of their Sovereigns…

From the very beginning when Hawaiians began living in these islands, and from when the alii first ruled and governed over our Hawaiian lahui until the rule of beloved King Kamehameha III who passed, there were none of this type of holidays celebrated by the Hawaiians; there were no days of celebration of this kind that were held near and far; but other days were commemorated, those being the days of parading of the chiefs, the days to display their grandeur, the days of offerings, and the days that the makahiki were celebrated, perhaps like the Hapi Nuia (the New Year of today; those were the only days similar to what we have now); but the other days, they were not regularly celebrated on the days of the months in the year.

This was so until the death of Harieta Nahienaena, the sister of the King who passed, when a memorial was held, a day to grieve and to reminisce on her passing—no other day was commemorated nor celebrated, until the year 1843, when the 31st of July was celebrated for the return of the sovereignty of the land.

During that time, the Nation of Hawaii was in great turmoil; there was much tumult and disorder caused from the outside, for we were not an independent nation in those days, and did not associate with the other great nations, as with international law.

Therefore, because of the great desire of the deceased King to have an independent nation, during the years of 1840 and 1841, he sent Ministers to go to the great nations, however independence was not obtained. Yet the kindhearted King who passed did not falter, he sent Ministers once again, because of his aloha and his idea to make his rule independent along with us makaainana, and to give us rights under international law.

In the year 1842, he once again sent Ministers, they being George Simpson and William Richards, and sent also from the side of the King was Timoteo Haalilio, to seek this independence; they went, worked, and achieved the right. And this 28th of November is the fruit of their journey, that being the day on which the Rulers of Britain and France,  by the names of their Kings, agreed to validate and to make binding, the independence of the Nation of the Hawaiian Islands; and therefore we celebrate on this day, and rejoice in the obtaining of our rights and our high position as a great nation counted amongst the great nations of the world.

The year that this was approved, it became a day of celebration for us, and there perhaps was no other year as troublesome as this year for the King. There was some difficulties in 1839, but there was just some money taken while the one who took the money promised to return it, and it was returned; however, this year, it was the most problematic, because while the Ministers were away dealing with the rights of the Nation and asking for independence, a warship arrived and took the sovereignty of the land and took control of the nation while rejecting some of the laws and taking and distributing the money in the Treasury; our King, however, carried out his claim to petition the Nation of Britain. The Admiral arrived, but our independence was not clear; and on the 28th of November 1843, the Heads of State approved and affixed their signatures in London, certifying our independence and that it was binding, and that is how we are today.

The King who accomplished this has passed; and the officers who went and fought for this, they have gone on the same journey; and some of our people who were here in past November 28s, they too have gone; and the kingdom has been inherited by our present benevolent King; and to the other alii; and to we makaainana as well; for these blessings were not sought just for them, but for all of us who came after living today, and for those who will come after us, and for all eternity.

Therefore it is good reason for us to rejoice for all of our rights, and to remember our beloved King, the one who first sought out independence for our archipelago so that he would have authority from Hawaii to Kauai, and then kindly give us a place for us to live peacefully under his care, and under his progeny to whom he passes the throne, as we see now. And we must thank our present King and the royal family for their efforts and desire to perpetuate these rights; and we must also thank the great nations for their aloha and for their kindness in agreeing to count us amongst the famed people of the earth.

This is the eighteenth 28th of November celebrated by us in response to this reason of independence, and there are many good activities for us to do. One of them is to hold meetings while selecting speakers to talk about the blessings we received on this day. Because the blessings received as a result of the actions done on this day from the start,  they are so great that we cannot totally fathom it; as a result of these blessings, should we land on the other side of the world, we will see the Flag of our land of birth waving in London; and should we fly in a balloon, it will be fluttering on the shores of California and Spain; and it will be streaming everywhere. There are many reasons we should rejoice and commemorate the 28th of this month with love and joy.

That is not all. You know by the second idea shown above that it is important for us to give thanks to God for the blessings we received these years while humbling ourselves before Him, while asking for his kindness and patience, and quietly beg of Him to watch over us always, and to bless our King and Queen and Ka Haku o Hawaii, and the Royal grandchildren of Kamehameha, and all of the alii; ours, and all of the land, and to give us a treaty.

For this reason, let us participate, go, eat, and drink while celebrating those for whom we should remember on this day.

[Sorry for being a whole week late, and for the particularly rough state which this is in. This definitely needs a finished translation! I hope you all set aside time to celebrate La Kuokoa in your own way!]

(Hoku o ka Pakipika, 11/28/1861, p. 2)

Ke ike mai nei paha na mea a pau...

Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, Buke I, Helu 10, Aoao 2. Novemaba 28, 1861.

Independence Day, 1867.

In the Announcements Column of the Government’s English newspaper [Hawaiian Gazette] of yesterday, we saw an announcement calling all those who want to celebrate the coming 28th of November, to all come down to the reading room of the Hotel of Kaopuaua to discuss it tomorrow night, Friday. This is what the haole are doing; where are the Hawaiians for whom this day is truly for?

(Au Okoa, 9/26/1867, p. 2)

Ma na Kolamu Olelo Hoolaha...

Ke Au Okoa, Buke III, Helu 23, Aoao 2. Sepatemaba 26, 1867.

Beginnings of the Anglican Church in Hawaii, 1862.

Pertaining to the 28th of November¹

This day known to everyone, the day of the return of independence to the Islands and the day chosen by the Monarchs as a day for the two of them to join the new faith which has recently arrived.

On the morning of that day, at the hour of 10½, the Alii arrived at the Church and the National troops [koa o ke Aupuni], the Honolulu Rifles [koa Rifles?], the Hawaii Kiai [?], and the Cavalry [Puali Kaua Lio] were all lined up.

When the Alii arrived and passed through the entrance, the Bishop came and layed his hand and blessed them. They then entered within and sat down; following them was a procession, and they entered while chanting one of the psalms. After this was done, the laying on of hands began, and they were confirmed as brethren of the new church.

The beauty that is imbued in all creatures of the earth is what left all of their subjects who went there awe-stricken. Some wept, some fled [hoonaholoholopoo?], some were downcast, and some shuddered in awe, appearing as if the spirit from the heavens was accepted in the Monarchs joining into the circle of eternal life.

Present was Her Highness Princess V. K. Kaahumanu, the Honorable M. Kekuanaoa, the Honorable R. C. Wyllie, the Honorable Chief Justice E. H. Allen, the Honorable C. R. Bishop and his wife, the Honorable C. Kapaakea, the Honorable Colonel D. Kalakaua, Colonel McKibbin Jr., Colonel W. C. Lunalilo, Major Hasslocher, Kekaaniau, the Dowager Queen K. Hakaleleponi, Mrs. Haalelea, the wives of the Supreme Court Judges, and the Honorable Ii. There also was W. W. F. Synge and his wife, along with the Consuls of Foreign Nations.

The building was filled with those wanting to witness the joining of the Monarchs as brethren, and everyone felt much appreciation for the beauty of the Royals, the Alii, and the ceremony performed. God save the King.

¹La Kuokoa [Hawaiian Independence Day]

(Hoku o ka Pakipika, 12/4/1862, p. 2)

No ka la 28 o Novemaba.

Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, Buke 2, Helu 8, Aoao 2. Dekemaba 4, 1862.