On Restoration day, 31st ult., the Rev. R. Armstrong, the King’s Minister of Public Instruction, named his new house, Continue reading
I STATE that when A. Paki died, someone wrote down his genealogy, and gave it to me to publish in the Elele, and because of its great length, it was not published at the time. Continue reading
Pertaining to the non-flowering sugarcane.
The readers of the Hae Hawaii saw the statement of John Richardson [Ioane Richardson] pertaining to the non-flowering sugarcane of Waikapu, Maui. So that the accuracy or inaccuracy of this statement is made known to the people of Waikapu about this thing, here below is his letter speaking about their thoughts. Continue reading
Waikapu, Maui, October 14, 1858.
Rev. R. Armstrong.
Aloha oe:—I received your letter of the 9th of this month pertaining to the planting of our sugarcane [ko] in Haiku.
There is this, I have here in Waikapu a sugarcane called non-flowering sugarcane [ko pua ole]; perhaps there is a half an acre of this sugarcane growing in my fields. This sugarcane does not flower at all; and I know the truth of it not flowering, in 1849, 1850, and 1851. Continue reading
By Russell and Peg Apple
BY THE MID 1800s, the Hawaiian people were betwixt and between two cultures. There was the pull and the momentum of the old—the traditional Hawaiian; and the lure and exhortations of the new—a New England brand of Western.
And the Hawaiians were aware of the situation. They were not above pointing out to each other the conflicts they met in their everyday life.
One who did so was a man from Palolo, a Mr. J. H. Kanepuu. He wrote in the Hawaiian language newspaper Ke Au Okoa, and on Jan. 21, 1867, saw the need to call attention to two counting systems that existed side by side.
KANEPUU NOTED the conflict in the markets where Hawaiians bought and sold. There was a generation gap in methods of enumeration. Most of the fishermen and farmers who sold in the markets were old men who counted by the Hawaiian method. Those who bought were younger folks who counted by the haole system. Few knew both well.
The momentum and practices of the past fixed the habit patterns of the fishermen who caught flying fish, mullet, mackerel and milkfish for the Honolulu markets. They either sold their catch themselves, or it was sold by family members of the same generation. They counted Hawaiian style.
Those who bought counted haole style. They had been to the mission and public schools. They knew how to count by tens, from one on up into the tens of thousands. Each had ten fingers, including thumbs, to help.
BUT THE Hawaiian system was based on the numeral four, not the decimal system. Hawaiians had four fingers on each hand to help in counting.
Both the old timers and the younger Hawaiians spoke Hawaiian fluently. But the haole terms had been translated into Hawaiian and taught to the people who went to school, along with the counting-by-tens method. It was the same sort of confusion which occurs today when a nation switches from pounds-shillings-and-pence to a coinage based on the decimal system. Or when a student who learned his work in inches, feet, yards and miles tries to deal with millimeters, centimeters, meters kilometers. Misunderstandings and confusion result.
LOT KAMEHAMEHA, later to rule as Kamehameha V, was educated by Christian missionaries and was versed in the Western system. Kanepuu wrote that when he was still Prince Lot, he received a gift of fish at his house in Honolulu. This was sometime in the early 1800s, before Lot Kamehameha was crowned.
The men who brought the fish used the old system, the Prince only understood the new.
“How much fish?” asked the prince.
“One lau and nine kaau,” answered the Hawaiian servant who delivered the fish, a gift from chief Kuhia.
THIS ANSWER distressed Lot Kamehameha and he alsmost became angry. On seeing this, the Hawaiian switched to the new system. Continue reading
Ohelo papa: Some baskets of Ohelo papa were obtained by Armstrong [Limaikaika] from Makawao; L. L. Torburt [Torbert] sent them over; and they were marvelous. Some ohelo papa was sent earlier to the yearly exhibition of the Agricultural Society [Ahahui Mahiai], and the haole purchased them. This is something greatly desired by the haole; they buy ohelo papa in great amounts if it arrives. This is the problem, that it takes long, and most of it ripens at sea. But it doesn’t get too over ripe.
(Hae Hawaii, 8/13/1856, p. 96)
I was at Waialua today (Sep. 9.) and came back. I measured the border of the ‘farming school’ there, however the acreage is not currently calculated. The school there is good; there are 16 students and they are happy with the work and the school. They farm with cows and digging sticks [oo]; they weed the sugarcane, plant corn, plant beans, watch over the calves in the fields, irrigate, build houses, and other work, and they are greatly prepared with activities that are enlightened and knowledgeable. I saw the corn, and it is very fine, and so too of the beans. I looked over the land, and I thought of the land farmed in America; they are almost the same, and aloha for my land welled up in me.
The foundation of the new church in Waialua are filled in with stone; here are its dimensions: 87 feet long and 48 feet wide. The completion of the church will perhaps go quickly, because the lumber and the coral are piled up, and the adobe [pohaku] are soon to come. However, this all depends on the vigor and the patience of the brethren who are working on it. O Brethren of Waialua, be strong, don’t be hesitant and uncertain and lazy, but be courageous and your church will be complete in no time.
The congregation on Sunday at Waialua is now a little bigger; the great apathy of that area has been warded off, and some have regained their faith in the word of God.
It is said that there is much apathy amongst the brethren in Ewa. This is true in Honolulu as well; the churches are filled on Sunday, but the hearts of the brethren are not filled with the spirit of God. There is much sleeping, leisure, and true skepticism. Alas, we are living with apathy in Zion! O Let us awaken once more, trim our lamps, and be vigilant, lest the bridegroom arrive at once and we will be alarmed.¹
¹Referencing the parable of the ten virgins found in Matthew 25.
[Today was Liliuokalani Church’s Annual Luau! Mahalo to KK for thinking of me with a delivery, everything was ono!!]
(Nonanona, 9/14/1841, p. 23.)
Schools and Seminaries.—In the very important point of providing instruction for all classes, as in every other duty connected with their sacred calling, the missionaries stand prominent. With them, I believe, resides the merit of having excited the chiefs to desire a school for the systematic education of their children of both sexes. With the concurrence of the king and chiefs, in 1839, the American mission selected for that purpose Mr. & Mrs. Cooke, who were assistant missionaries. Having lately at the request of Dr. Judd, visited the school daily, to watch the progress of a disease, bearing more resemblance to the “typhus mitior” of “Cullen,” than any other known types of fever, I have been an eye-witness to the anxious and parental-like care of Mr. & Mrs. Cooke, both of the sick and healthy children of the chiefs; and I am prepared to state from observation, that a more proper selection could not have been made.
The school-room is very commodiously arranged. Strict order and obedience are observed, without any exertion of authority approaching to harshness. Books, maps, stationery, gloves (terrestrial and celestial,) are at all times within the access of the scholars, and there is an excellent apparatus to illustrate the movements of the planets which compose our solar system.
(Friend, August 1, 1844, p. 35)
The following is a list of the young chiefs at present in the school of Mr. and Mrs. Cooke:
|NAMES.||WHEN BORN||FATHER||MOTHER||ADOPTED BY|
|*Alexander Liholiho,||9 Feb. 1834.||Kekuanaoa.||Kinau.||Kamehameha III.|
|†Moses Kekuaiwa,||20 July 1829.||ditto.||ditto.||Kaieoewa [Kaikioewa].|
|‡Lot Kamehameha,||11 Dec. 1830.||ditto.||ditto.||Hoapili.|
|‖William Charles Lunalilo,||31 Jan. 1835.||Kanaina.||**Kekauluohi.|
|Peter Young Kaeo,||4 March 1836.||Kaeo.||Lahilahi.||John Young.|
|James Kaliokalani,||29 May 1835.||Pakea [Kapaakea].||Keohokalole.||Aikanaka.|
|David Kalakaua,||16 Nov. 1836.||ditto.||ditto.||Haaheo Kania [Kaniu].|
|§Victoria Kamamalu,||4 Nov. 1838.||Kekuanaoa.||Kinau.|
|Bernice Pauahi,||19 Dec. 1831.||Paki.||Konia.||Kinau.|
|Abigail [Lanihau] Maheha,||10 July 1832.||Namaile.||Liliha.||Kekauonohi.|
|¶Jane Loeau,||5 Dec. 1828.||Kalaiulumoku [Kalaniulumoku]||[Liliha.]||Kaukualii.|
|Elizabeth Kekaniau [Kekaaniau],||11 Sept. 1834.||Laanui.||Oana.|
|Emma Rooke,||2 Jan. 1836.||Naea.||Kekela.||T. C. B. Rooke, M. D.|
|Lydia Makaeha [Kamakaeha],||2 Sept. 1838.||Pakea [Kapaakea].||Keohokalole.||Paki & Konia.|
|Polly Paaaina,||1833.||Henry Lewis.||Kekala [Kekela].||John Ii.|
*Heir apparent to the crown. (The king having no children.)
†Governor presumptive of Kauai.
‡Gov. presumpt. of maui. (Now convalescing from fever.)
‖Convalescing from fever—(25th May.)
§Heir apparent to the premiership.
¶Half-sister of Abigail.
Nor do Mr. & Mrs. Cooke neglect to impress upon their pupils that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and religion the basis of all private and public worth. A portion of scripture is read morning and evening, with singing and prayer, in the presbyterian form of family worship.
On Sundays, the pupils regularly attend two services in native, by the Rev. Mr. Armstrong, and one in English, by the Rev. Mr. Damon.
Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, both by precept and the example of their own well regulated family, enforce the utmost propriety of moral deportment, and every punctilio of cleanliness, dress, manner and address, calculated to add the polish of refinement to more solid and useful attainments.
The pupils rise with the sun, breakfast at 7 A. M., dine at 1 o’clock, take tea at 6 P. M., and retire early to rest. At table, Mr. and Mrs. Cooke always preside, and there is an abundant supply of good and substantial food.¹
The school hours are from 9 to 12 A. M., and from 2 to 5 P. M.
The medical care of the pupils has devolved upon Dr. G. P. Judd, who not withstanding his onerous and multifarious duties as secretary of state for foreign affairs, head of the financial department, &c., &c., always finds time to attend, when wanted. i myself have been an eye-witness of the extreme anxiety and tenderness with which he watched the progress of the fever of little William, whose symptoms were, for several weeks, very alarming. And it is but right I should add that his good and exemplary lady was a frequent visitor at the bed-side of the sick child.
It is impossible, in any part of the world, that sick children could have been better looked after, than were William, Lot and Jane, by Dr. Judd, and Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, whether as regards the curative or nursing department.
Amongst other things pleasing to observe, was the great concern and affection of the parents, especially in the case of William, who was the only one in real danger.
The pupils are encouraged in the gymnastical exercises which tend to develop the physical powers and fortify the constitution. Among these are playing ball, flying kites, cultivation of flowers, swinging, see-sawing, walking, and riding on horseback.
To me it is a most pleasing scene to see them all, boys and girls, well attired and well mounted, merry and good humored, curvetting, galloping and turning round their horses with great dexterity. This pleasure I have, almost every evening during my rides, as I seldom fail to meet and ride on part of my way with them.
When Admiral Thomas was here, he was always glad to see them at his house, and to encourage them to go out to tea-parties at the houses of respectable foreign residents here. I have thus met the young chiefs often in society, and I have always found that they support their part in the conversation, in English, with much decorum and propriety. In fact, there is nothing perceptible in their manner or habits that could strike a stranger as differing much from the manners and habits of young English or Americans of the same age.
Each child or pupil has from two to six native attendants, namely: tailors, washers, grooms, &c., according to the age, rank and sex of each; and these are all under the direction of John Ii and his wife, both most respectable natives, who cooperate with Mr. and Mrs. Cooke in excluding these attendants from any intercourse of intimacy with the young chiefs that could communicate to them their own vices, prejudices and superstitions.
Mr. Cooke assures me that in every department of education, they show a readiness and docility quite equal to any other children, of the same ages, and under the same circumstances.
If is evident that under his and Mrs. Cooke’s tuition, these young chiefs will go forth into the world and assume their respective stations, having a fund of general knowledge vastly superior to what is sometimes found in the riders of extensive provinces, and even some republics in Spanish America. It is equally obvious that the administration of these future rulers must be immeasurably more enlightened than any that has ever before existed in these islands; and when they come into power, a new and better order of things may be expected.
This most useful institution, fraught with so many blessings present and prospective, temporal and spiritual, is supported at an expense to the government of about $2000 yearly. This is all that is allowed to Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, for their own salaries, for finding the table, domestics and all incidental expenses. To me it is incomprehensible how they can do so much, with so little.
The clothing is found by the parents or guardians of the pupils. It is supplied in abundance and good taste.
Separate rooms are provided for every two of the pupils; and the apartments are clean, well furnished and well ventilated. There are in all 17 rooms of various dimensions, opening into a court 36 feet square, with windows on the outside, which is 76 feet square. The whole building cost originally little more than $2000, though it is solidly constructed with sun-dried bricks (adobes) with a well thatched roof. But the furniture must have cost a great deal, as no comfort, in that respect, that can be imagined, is wanting.
The Rev. Mr. Dibble says that the king, when surveying the happy group, and noticing their improvement, remarked: “I wish my lot had been like yours; I deeply regret the foolish manner in which I spent the years of my youth;” and I would venture to add, that the king has more reason to be proud of this chiefs’ school than of any thing within his dominion.
(Friend, August 1, 1844, p. 36)
¹This comment about the abundance of food reminded me of something Liliuokalani said in Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen. “…our instructors were especially particular to teach us the proper use of the English language; but when I recall the instances in which we were sent hungry to bed, it seems to me that they failed to remember that we were growing children. A thick slice of bread covered with molasses was usually the sole article of our supper, and we were sometimes ingenious, if not over honest, in our search for food: if we could beg something of the cook it was the easier way; but if not, anything eatable left within our reach was surely confiscated. As a last resort, we were not above searching the gardens for any esculent root or leaf, which (having inherited the art of igniting a fire from the friction of sticks), we could cook and consume without the knowledge of our preceptors.”
Speaking of Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen, i was expecting the new much-awaited edition to be available already, but hopefully it will be out in bookstores soon! I am thinking of putting up related articles like this one (mostly from the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers) to perhaps give a fuller picture of topics covered in the Queen’s book.
[This is written by Robert Crichton Wyllie, and is found in a very enlightening treatise describing many aspects of life in Honolulu in the 1840s. “NOTE On the Shipping, Trade, Agriculture, Climate, Diseases, Religious Institutions, Civil and Social Conditions, Mercantile and Financial Policy of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands, viewed in relation to other groups of islands, and to the natural and acquired advantages of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands.” Friend, June 1–September 24, 1844.]
OLD IDOLS OF HAWAII NEI.
I want some ancient idols [kii]; the idols that were worshiped in these islands before. Those who have the, bring them to me, and I will purchase them.
(Nonanona, 11/28/1843, p. 68)
Here me O People of Hawaii nei; what do you all think of this cession of the kingdom? Is it fine? Your heart probably aches for the king and all the alii; That is how it should be; we are all hurting; however, do not grieve, do not revolt, do not let your resolve waver. We must remain calm and abide by the laws; don’t think that the laws have fallen, not at all, they are still totally in effect. There was a small disturbance in Honolulu the other night, and some men severely injured some of the sailors from the warship, and therefore the laws are being announced once again these days, so that the confusion of the people will end.
O Christian people of Hawaii nei, do not feel uncertain over the cession of the nation; our kingdom does not lie in this world, we have a different kingdom in the heavens; it is a great kingdom which is permanent, and unshakeable, and peaceful. Its king is good; he watches over his people, and they live forever. The nations of this world end quickly and are gone forever, but the kingdom of Jesus Christ will never end. Let us search after this kingdom and its righteousness, and we will be saved from the turbulence of this world.
[This editorial is probably by Richard Armstrong (Limaikaika), missionary and editor of Ka Nonanona.]
(Nonanona, 3/7/1843, p. 100)