Hawaiian-Language Newspapers, 1862.

Native Newspapers.—The Hawaiians are as much attached to newspapers as any newsmonger of old Athens was to the gossip of the Areopagus. Long since, the “Kumu,” “Nonanona,” and “Eleele” [Elele], have passed away. Then followed the weekly “Hae,” which was a great advance upon its predecessors, but the “Hae,” is now to be spoken of as among the things that were, and 1862 opens with the “Hoku Loa,” or “Morning Star,” a Protestant Religious Monthly, and a similar monthly issued from the Catholic Mission [“Ka Hae Kiritiano”]. Besides these, two rather ambitious weeklies are in the field, viz: “Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika,” or “Star of the Pacific,” and “Ka Nupepa Kuokoa,” or “The Independent.” The former is issued from the “Polynesian,” office, and the latter is published by Mr. H. M. Whitney, who seems determined that the Hawaiians shall have a weekly every way worthy of being called a “Newspaper.” The number for January 1st, is printed upon excellent paper, and executed in a style to reflect the highest credit upon the employees of the “Advertiser Office.” We sincerely congratulate the Hawaiians upon the rare treat which this paper will afford them each week during the ensuing year.

[I am posting this after coming across it because of a post last week by Nanea Armstrong-Wassel, seen here. It is interesting to note that the Friend was obviously not supporting the Hoku o ka Pakipika…]

(Friend, 1/1/1862, p. 1)

Native Newspapers.

The Friend, New Series, Volume II, Number 1, Page 1. January 1, 1862.

Advertisements

The Chiefs’ Children’s School and its beginnings. 1844.

Schools and Seminaries.—In the very important point of providing instruction for all classes, as in every other duty connected with their sacred calling, the missionaries stand prominent. With them, I believe, resides the merit of having excited the chiefs to desire a school for the systematic education of their children of both sexes. With the concurrence of the king and chiefs, in 1839, the American mission selected for that purpose Mr. & Mrs. Cooke, who were assistant missionaries. Having lately at the request of Dr. Judd, visited the school daily, to watch the progress of a disease, bearing more resemblance to the “typhus mitior” of “Cullen,” than any other known types of fever, I have been an eye-witness to the anxious and parental-like care of Mr. & Mrs. Cooke, both of the sick and healthy children of the chiefs; and I am prepared to state from observation, that a more proper selection could not have been made.

The school-room is very commodiously arranged. Strict order and obedience are observed, without any exertion of authority approaching to harshness. Books, maps, stationery, gloves (terrestrial and celestial,) are at all times within the access of the scholars, and there is an excellent apparatus to illustrate the movements of the planets which compose our solar system.

(Friend, August 1, 1844, p. 35)

37. Schools and Seminaries.

The Friend, Volume II, Number VIII, Page 35. August 1, 1844.

The following is a list of the young chiefs at present in the school of Mr. and Mrs. Cooke:

NAMES. WHEN BORN FATHER MOTHER ADOPTED BY
*Alexander Liholiho, 9 Feb. 1834. Kekuanaoa. Kinau. Kamehameha III.
†Moses Kekuaiwa, 20 July 1829. ditto. ditto. Kaieoewa [Kaikioewa].
‡Lot Kamehameha, 11 Dec. 1830. ditto. ditto. Hoapili.
‖William Charles Lunalilo, 31 Jan. 1835. Kanaina. **Kekauluohi.
Peter Young Kaeo, 4 March 1836. Kaeo. Lahilahi. John Young.
James Kaliokalani, 29 May 1835. Pakea [Kapaakea]. Keohokalole. Aikanaka.
David Kalakaua, 16 Nov. 1836. ditto. ditto. Haaheo Kania [Kaniu].
§Victoria Kamamalu, 4 Nov. 1838. Kekuanaoa. Kinau.
Bernice Pauahi, 19 Dec. 1831. Paki. Konia. Kinau.
Abigail [Lanihau] Maheha, 10 July 1832. Namaile. Liliha. Kekauonohi.
¶Jane Loeau, 5 Dec. 1828. Kalaiulumoku [Kalaniulumoku] [Liliha.] Kaukualii.
Elizabeth Kekaniau [Kekaaniau], 11  Sept. 1834. Laanui. Oana.
Emma Rooke, 2 Jan. 1836. Naea. Kekela. T. C. B. Rooke, M. D.
Lydia Makaeha [Kamakaeha], 2 Sept. 1838. Pakea [Kapaakea]. Keohokalole. Paki & Konia.
Polly Paaaina, 1833. Henry Lewis. Kekala [Kekela]. John Ii.

*Heir apparent to the crown. (The king having no children.)
†Governor presumptive of Kauai.
‡Gov. presumpt. of maui. (Now convalescing from fever.)
‖Convalescing from fever—(25th May.)
§Heir apparent to the premiership.
¶Half-sister of Abigail.
**The premier.

Nor do Mr. & Mrs. Cooke neglect to impress upon their pupils that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and religion the basis of all private and public worth. A portion of scripture is read morning and evening, with singing and prayer, in the presbyterian form of family worship.

On Sundays, the pupils regularly attend two services in native, by the Rev. Mr. Armstrong, and one in English, by the Rev. Mr. Damon.

Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, both by precept and the example of their own well regulated family, enforce the utmost propriety of moral deportment, and every punctilio of cleanliness, dress, manner and address, calculated to add the polish of refinement to more solid and useful attainments.

The pupils rise with the sun, breakfast at 7 A. M., dine at 1 o’clock, take tea at 6 P. M., and retire early to rest. At table, Mr. and Mrs. Cooke always preside, and there is an abundant supply of good and substantial food.¹

The school hours are from 9 to 12 A. M., and from 2 to 5 P. M.

The medical care of the pupils has devolved upon Dr. G. P. Judd, who not withstanding his onerous and multifarious duties as secretary of state for foreign affairs, head of the financial department, &c., &c., always finds time to attend, when wanted. i myself have been an eye-witness of the extreme anxiety and tenderness with which he watched the progress of the fever of little William, whose symptoms were, for several weeks, very alarming. And it is but right I should add that his good and exemplary lady was a frequent visitor at the bed-side of the sick child.

It is impossible, in any part of the world, that sick children could have been better looked after, than were William, Lot and Jane, by Dr. Judd, and Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, whether as regards the curative or nursing department.

Amongst other things pleasing to observe, was the great concern and affection of the parents, especially in the case of William, who was the only one in real danger.

The pupils are encouraged in the gymnastical exercises which tend to develop the physical powers and fortify the constitution. Among these are playing ball, flying kites, cultivation of flowers, swinging, see-sawing, walking, and riding on horseback.

To me it is a most pleasing scene to see them all, boys and girls, well attired and well mounted, merry and good humored, curvetting, galloping and turning round their horses with great dexterity. This pleasure I have, almost every evening during my rides, as I seldom fail to meet and ride on part of my way with them.

When Admiral Thomas was here, he was always glad to see them at his house, and to encourage them to go out to tea-parties at the houses of respectable foreign residents here. I have thus met the young chiefs often in society, and I have always found that they support their part in the conversation, in English, with much decorum and propriety. In fact, there is nothing perceptible in their manner or habits that could strike a stranger as differing much from the manners and habits of young English or Americans of the same age.

Each child or pupil has from two to six native attendants, namely: tailors, washers, grooms, &c., according to the age, rank and sex of each; and these are all under the direction of John Ii and his wife, both most respectable natives, who cooperate with Mr. and Mrs. Cooke in excluding these attendants from any intercourse of intimacy with the young chiefs that could communicate to them their own vices, prejudices and superstitions.

Mr. Cooke assures me that in every department of education, they show a readiness and docility quite equal to any other children, of the same ages, and under the same circumstances.

If is evident that under his and Mrs. Cooke’s tuition, these young chiefs will go forth into the world and assume their respective stations, having a fund of general knowledge vastly superior to what is sometimes found in the riders of extensive provinces, and even some republics in Spanish America. It is equally obvious that the administration of these future rulers must be immeasurably more enlightened than any that has ever before existed in these islands; and when they come into power, a new and better order of things may be expected.

This most useful institution, fraught with so many blessings present and prospective, temporal and spiritual, is supported at an expense to the government of about $2000 yearly. This is all that is allowed to Mr. and Mrs. Cooke, for their own salaries, for finding the table, domestics and all incidental expenses. To me it is incomprehensible how they can do so much, with so little.

The clothing is found by the parents or guardians of the pupils. It is supplied in abundance and good taste.

Separate rooms are provided for every two of the pupils; and the apartments are clean, well furnished and well ventilated. There are in all 17 rooms of various dimensions, opening into a court 36 feet square, with windows on the outside, which is 76 feet square. The whole building cost originally little more than $2000, though it is solidly constructed with sun-dried bricks (adobes) with a well thatched roof. But the furniture must have cost a great deal, as no comfort, in that respect, that can be imagined, is wanting.

The Rev. Mr. Dibble says that the king, when surveying the happy group, and noticing their improvement, remarked: “I wish my lot had been like yours; I deeply regret the foolish manner in which I spent the years of my youth;” and I would venture to add, that the king has more reason to be proud of this chiefs’ school than of any thing within his dominion.

(Friend, August 1, 1844, p. 36)

The following is a list...

The Friend, Volume II, Number VIII, Page 36. August 1, 1844.

¹This comment about the abundance of food reminded me of something Liliuokalani said in Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen. “…our instructors were especially particular to teach us the proper use of the English language; but when I recall the instances in which we were sent hungry to bed, it seems to me that they failed to remember that we were growing children. A thick slice of bread covered with molasses was usually the sole article of our supper, and we were sometimes ingenious, if not over honest, in our search for food: if we could beg something of the cook it was the easier way; but if not, anything eatable left within our reach was surely confiscated. As a last resort, we were not above searching the gardens for any esculent root or leaf, which (having inherited the art of igniting a fire from the friction of sticks), we could cook and consume without the knowledge of our preceptors.”

Speaking of Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen, i was expecting the new much-awaited edition to be available already, but hopefully it will be out in bookstores soon! I am thinking of putting up related articles like this one (mostly from the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers) to perhaps give a fuller picture of topics covered in the Queen’s book.

[This is written by Robert Crichton Wyllie, and is found in a very enlightening treatise describing many aspects of life in Honolulu in the 1840s. “NOTE On the Shipping, Trade, Agriculture, Climate, Diseases, Religious Institutions, Civil and Social Conditions, Mercantile and Financial Policy of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands, viewed in relation to other groups of islands, and to the natural and acquired advantages of the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands.” Friend, June 1–September 24, 1844.]

More on Liliu’s marriage, 1862.

I was engaged to Mr. Dominis for about two years and it was our intention to be married on the second day of September, 1862. But by reason of the fact that the court was in affliction and mourning, our wedding was delayed at the request of the king, Kamehameha IV., to the sixteenth of that month; Rev. Dr. Damon, father of Mr. S. M. Damon, at present the leading banker of the Islands, being the officiating clergyman. It was celebrated at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Bishop, in the house which had been erected by my father, Paki, and which, known as the Arlington Hotel [Haleakala], is still one of the most beautiful and central of the mansions in Honolulu. To it came all the high chiefs then living there, also the foreign residents; in fact, all the best society of the city.

[This is what Queen Liliuokalani had to say about her marriage in Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen, first published in 1898. Mahalo to Heather Wilkinson Rojo for her response on the previous post, saying she posted an image of their marriage certificate on her blog. This is one of the many priceless treasures cared for by the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum!]

(Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen, 1988. p. 22.)

Marriage of Liliuokalani and John Owen Dominis, 1862.

Marriage.—At 8 in the evening of Tuesday, the 16th of this month, the Honorable Lydia Kamakaeha Paki and Adjutant General Major J. O. Dominis were wed at the Residence of the Honorable C. R. Bishop and his Queen. The two were married in the Anglican faith.

Present were the King; her Highness Princess V. K. Kaahumanu; his Highness Prince L. Kamehameha; the Honorable M. Kekuanaoa, the Royal Governor of Oahu; Colonel Peter Young Kekuaokalani; also there were the parents of the bride, and the mother of the groom, and his cousins.

Rev. Samuel C. Damon was who performed the ceremony. It was appreciated for its righteousness and honor. With the two of them are the thoughts of aloha of this paper.

(Kuokoa, 9/20/1862, p. 3)

Mareia.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 43, Aoao 3. Sepatemaba 20, 1862.

Restoration celebration at Kaniakapupu, 1847.

Fourth Anniversary of the Restoration.

The 31st of July, appears to have become a national holyday among the Hawaiians. So far from discouraging its annual observance, we think it should be rather encouraged. A proper recognition of the day will foster a spirit of patriotism. The late anniversary appears to have been partly festive and partly religious. It was so intended.—All classes of our population were invited to a picnic at His Majesty’s summer residence in Nuuanu Valley. Notwithstanding the unpropitious state of the weather, great numbers resorted thither; besides pedestrians, several thousands on horse back. Says the Polynesian, “one man hired to count them, commenced early in the day and made out 3,600, going up and 4,600 down—another 1,637 following the King, and 362 straggling. His account was only for part of the day.—The Governor’s computation is 3,000, besides those that come from Koolau.” Suffice it to say, probably a larger company has not been assembled for many years.

Our limits will not allow a detailed account of the animating scenes of the day. A multitude seemed much interested in the spear-exercise and other Hawaiian sports. A sumptuous entertainment was spread for foreigners, while the Hawaiians were served, in a style, that reflected great credit upon His Majesty, the Governor, Paki, John Ii, and others who were directly or indirectly concerned. We can truly remark, that we never witnessed so numerous a gathering, where such perfect order, propriety and regularity were maintained. “There seemed to be a place for every man and every man was in his place.” The following summary of the various dishes served up for the occasion will show that the tables must have groaned under the weight of the viands:—

271 hogs, 482 large calabashes of poi, 602 chickens, 3 oxen, 2 barrels salt pork, 2 of bread, 3,125 salt fish, 1,820 fresh do., 12 1-2 barrels luau and cabbage, 4 do. onions, 18 bunches bananas, 55 pine apples, 10 barrels potatoes, 55 ducks, 82 Turkeys, 2,245 cocoanuts, 4,000 heads of kalo, 180 squid, Grapes and other etcetera, sufficient to feast 12,000 people.

We must not fail to notice one circumstance which was something new for this quarter of the globe. “A coach and four” was a new feature in the procession of a Polynesian chieftain. The Royal party rose in the carriage originally presented by Queen Victoria to her sister Queen, Pomare, but which the latter, in her poverty, was obliged to dispose of by sale. We very much doubt whether any King ever rode through the streets of the capital of his kingdom, when greater order and decorum reigned. To the triumph of Temperance principles among the Hawaiians and foreigners, must be attributed much of the good order that was every where apparent throughout the day.

In the evening, His Majesty, chiefs, foreign officers of government, many of the residents, and numbers of the native population assembled for religious service at the King’s Chapel. A discourse was preached in native and afterwards repeated in English, by the Rev. Mr. Armstrong. The singing was good. The sermon of the Mr. Armstrong has already been published in the columns of the Government Organ. We hops it will be read.

[This and the rest of The Friend can be found here at the click of a mouse on the Mission Children Society page!

This celebration is also described in Thrum’s Annual for 1930!]

(Friend, 8/12/1847, p. 117.)

Fourth Anniversary of the Restoration.

The Friend, Volume V, Number XV, Page 117. August 12, 1847.

La Hoihoi Ea, 1843.

THE RESTORATION.

This day, July thirty first, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, will hereafter be referred to, as memorable in the history of the Sandwich Islands Government. The existence of the Government has often been threatened, but it has been most signally preserved. It is easy to trace the superintending Providence of God in every stage of its advancement. Many months since persons acquainted with its condition were fully aware that a most important crisis was approaching. It was seen that if the nation continued independent favorable influences must be exerted on the other side of the world. While the most amicable negotiations were going forward, an English Man of War anchors in this harbor. Immediate hostile action was threatened unless the Government yielded to certain demands. Those having been acceded to, others more exhorbitant were forth coming. The King finding himself involved in difficulties, which were not of his own making, under a reservation most reluctantly made a Provisional Cession of his dominions to the Queen of England.

He signed the treaty of cession while bathed in tears. At 3 oʻclock, P. M. Feb. 25, 1843, the National Flag was taken down, while that of England was raised. Never shall we forget the day. To the native population and a majority of the Foreign Residents of all nations, it was a day of sadness. They knew not as their eyes would ever again behold the Flag of Kamehameha III., waving over his rightful dominions. Whoever shall write an accurate history of the period which has since elpased must draw some dark shades to the picture.

The arrival of H. M. S. Dublin, and the negotiations which have taken place between the Admiral and the King, present affairs in a different aspect, which to most in this community is as unexpected as joyful.

The King is to receive a full restoration of his rights, privileges and and dominions. This morning, a public recognition of this restoration will take place. At 10 oʻclock, A. M., His Majesty Kamehameha III., will appear upon the plain East of the town. His standard will be unfurled under a general salute; which being finished, the National Flag will be displayed on both Forts, and be saluted by H. B. M. Ships with 21 guns each, which will be answered from the Forts. At one oʻclock, public religious services will be held in the Stone Church. At three oʻclock, His Majesty will embark to visit Richard Thomas, Rear Admiral of the White, H. B. M. Ship Dublin.

If reports are true, there will be other salutes and exhibitions of public joy! No doubt many hearty wishes and fervent prayers will be uttered for the prosperity of the King, and the welfare of the Government. To the latest generation may a lineal and worthy successor of His Majesty Kamehameha III., sit upon the throne of his ancestors. All genuine lovers of the Sandwich Islands Government, here and throughout the world, will cherish in grateful recollection the memory of Rear Admiral THOMASʻ timely interferance and noble deeds in behalf of a feeble, but well disposed people, who are struggling amid many hindrances to preserve their National Independence.

[This is from a special edition of the Advocate and Friend published on the very day of the restoration. The rest of the coverage can be seen here on the Mission Houses Museum page! Mahalo to Dwight Baldwin (descendant of the Temperance Advocate, and Seamenʻs Friend editor Samuel C. Damon) via Nathan Napoka for reminding me that there are indeed Hawaii newspapers other than Hawaiian-Language Newspapers.]

(Advocate and Friend, 7/31/1843, p. 38)

THE RESTORATION.

Advocate and Friend. (Extra). July 31, 1843, p. 38.

The Kings of Hawaii, 1876.

This is from an issue of “The Friend,” which includes a short biography in English of the ruling monarchs of Hawaii nei, written by S. C. Damon. As for this page of illustrations, they say:

The illustrations accompanying this number of the Friend we could wish were better executed. The plate was made in New York, from the best photographs we could procure in Honolulu. The original of Kamehameha 1st was executed in 1817 by a Russian artist, who accompanied Kotzebue in his voyage, and may be seen by referring to the third volume of his voyage. The original of Kamehameha 2d was executed in England in 1824, in the style of the dress of George 4th’s reign. We think those of Kamehameha 3d, 4th and 5th are very good, but not quite so good those of Lunalilo or His Majesty Kalakaua.

[For the biographies, find them here: The Friend, February 1, 1876.

Although it is clunky to maneuver, most of this series of news letters is available from the Mission Houses Museum here: The Friend.]

(Friend, 2/1/1876, pp. 9–13)

[Monarchs]

The Friend, New Series, Volume 25, Number 2, Page unnumbered. February 1, 1876.