Chiefs and officers of the nation, 1844.


The following is a list of the principal Chiefs, Officers of His Majesty’s Civil Administration; of the Chiefs entitled to rank, and of the present incumbents in the more important local offices, which will be corrected as occasion may require:—

Members of the Hon. Privy Council of State.

G. P. JUDD, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
JOHN RICORD, Attorney General.
JOHN II, of the Treasury.
JOHN YOUNG, Counsellor.
TIMOTHY HAALILIO, of the Treasury.

Governors of the Respective Islands.

J. A. KUAKINI, Hawaii.
W. P. LELEIOHOKU, Acting Governor of Hawaii.

Associate Judges of the Supreme Court.



J. A. Kuakini,
M. Kekuanaoa,
M. Kekauonohi,
W. P. Leleiohoku,
A. Keliiahonui,
Keoni Ana,
C. Kanaina,
A. Paki,
Joani Ii,
T. Haalilio.

Princes and Chiefs eligible to be Rulers.

Alexander Liholiho, Heir Apparent to the Crown.
Moses Kekuaiwa, Expectant Gov. of Kauai.
Lot Kamehameha, Expectant Gov. of Maui.
William Lunalilo,
Jane Loeau,
Victoria Kamamalu,
James Kali, Expectant Premier.
Peter Young Kaeo,
Belinda Pauahi [Bernice Pauahi],
Emma Rooke,
David Kalakaua,
Abigail Maheha,
Polly Paaaina,
Elizabeth Kekaniau [Elizabeth Kekaaniau],
Lydia Kamakaeha.

Executive Officers of Government.

DAVID MALO, Superintendent of Schools at Maui.
KEIKENUI,  do.  do.  Oahu.
KAHOOKUI,  do.  do.  Kauai.
BARENABA,  do.  do. Hawaii.
KAPAE,  do.  do.  do.
JAMES J. JARVES, Director of Public Printing.
P. KANOA, Member of Treasury Board.
J. R. VON PFISTER, Secretary to dito.
G. L. KAPEAU,  do.  do.
WILLIAM PATY, Collector and Harbor Master of the Port of Honolulu.
T. C. B. ROOKE, Port Physician.
ROBERT BOYD, High Sheriff.
LOUIS GRAVIER, Prefect of Police and Superintendant of Public Houses in Honolulu.
MIKEKAI, Captain of Police of Honolulu.
HENRY SWINTON, Prefect of Police and Superintendant of Public Houses in Lahaina.
HOONAULU, Captain of Police at Lahaina.
EDWARD HAWKS, Collector of the Port of Lahaina.
ISAAC LEWIS, Harbor Master of  do.

Judges of Inferior Courts.

Kuhia, Judges of Honolulu.

Other parts of Oahu.

J. Kahananui,
Gideona Laanui,

Inferior Judges of Maui.

Kamakini, for Lahaina.

Inferior Judges of other parts Maui.


Inferior Judges of Kauai.

Daniela Oleola,
Solomona Koolua,
James Young.

Collectors of Internal Revenue—Oahu.


Collectors of Internal Revenue—Kauai.


Collectors of Internal Revenue—Maui.

James Nowliens,

Collectors of Internal Revenue—Hawaii.


(Polynesian, 7/20/1844, p. 1)


The Polynesian, New Series, Volume 1, Number 9, Page 1. July 20, 1844.


Rufus Anderson, “Hawaiian Islands: Their Progress and Condition Under Missionary Labors,” 1865.

Anderson’s Writings About Hawaii nei.

(We are pleased to tell you, our dear readers, that we are taking the lines below from a Book written by our beloved friend, Anesona (Dr. Rufus Anderson) who travelled the width and breadth of our Islands. Our friend read greatly about Hawaii nei before coming here, and when he saw it for his own eyes, his heart was gladdened, and therefore, he wrote this Book of 450 pages, and we believe that you all will also join in the pleasure along with us, for what he wrote about his travels around Hawaii nei.

Because we are unable to print the Book in its entirety, therefore, we tried to translate some chapters into Hawaiian. And we are beginning to provide it for the public from Chapter VI of his Book.)

[This is the introduction to a translation of Rufus Anderson’s “Hawaiian Islands: Their Progress and Condition Under Missionary Labors” which appears as a serial in the Kuokoa from 1/19/1865 to 6/8/1865. The English is available on Google Books here. It is interesting that this serial describing travels through the archipelago is immediately followed by Kamakau’s serial on travels describing famous places, kupua, and ancient alii from Hawaii to Niihau.]

(Kuokoa, 1/19/1865, p. 1)

Ka Anesona Moolelo no Hawaii nei.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke IV, Helu 3, Aoao 1. Ianuari 19, 1865.

Lorrin Andrews, “A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, to Which is Appended an English-Hawaiian Vocabulary and a Chronological Table of Remarkable Events,” 1865.

Hawaiian Dictionary of Andrews [Anaru].—We were told that this book will be completed next week; one section will be from Hawaiian to English, and the another section from English to Hawaiian, and at the very end is placed a timeline of famous events. This work by Andrews will stand as a monument to him for all times, with generations to come. The book is dedicated to the haole of Honolulu nei, and to the Hawaiians as well.

[This dictionary is indeed useful today, 150 years later! The alphabetization is not done ABC, but AEIOUHKLMNPWBDFGJRSTVZ. Check it out here online at Google Books.]

(Au Okoa, 4/24/1865, p. 2)

Buke Unuhiolelo a Anaru.

Ke Au Okoa, Buke I, Helu 1, Aoao 2. Aperila 24, 1865.

Hawaii related publications, 1844.




This catalogue will be found incomplete—especially in works published on the continent of Europe—but it is the best to be derived from the sources at our disposal.


History of the Sandwich Island Mission.—By Rev. Sheldon Dibble. 12mo. New York, 1839.

History of the American Board of Foreign Missions.—8vo. Worcester, 1840. Rev. S. Tracy.

History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands.—By James J. Jarves. 8vo. Boston.—Tappan & Dennet—with plates and maps—1843.

English Edition of same work.—London—Edward Moxon—1843.

History of the North West Coast of America.—By Robert Greenhow. 8vo. Wiley & Putnam—New York. 1840.

Ka Mooolelo, Hawaii, Lahainaluna, 1838.

History of Polynesia.—By Right Rev. M. Russel. 1vol., 12mo. Edinburgh—J. Harper and Brothers—New York, 1843.

History of the Sandwich Islands.—By Sheldon Dibble, Lahainaluna; Pres. of the Mission Seminary, 1843.

The Sandwich Islands.—Progress of Events since their discovery by Capt. Cook; Their Occupation by Lord George Paulet; Their Value and importance by Alexander Simpson, Esq,. 8vo—pamphlet. London, Smith, Elder & Co. 1843.



Anson’s Voyage around the World.—London, 1748.

Third Voyage of Capt. James Cook, 3 vols. 4to—plates. Admiralty edition. London, 1785.

Portlock’s and Dixon’s Voyage, 1785 to 1788—1 vol. quarto; London, 1789.

Vancouver’s Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the World—1790—1795—3vols.—4to—London, 1798.

Broughton’s Voyage of Discovery in the Dædalus—1795—1798. London—4to—1804.

Capt. John Meare’s Voyages—1787—1788 8vo. London, 1790.

Manuscript Journal of the Voyage of the Brig Hope of Boston, commanded by Joseph Ingraham—from 1790 to 1793; preserved in the Library of the Department of State, at Washington.

Account of a Voyage in the Pacific, made in 1793, and 1794, by Capt. James Colnett, London,—4to.

Voyage de La Perouse au tour du Monde,…

(Polynesian, 7/13/1844, p. 30)


The Polynesian, New Series, Volume 1, Number 8, Page 30. July 13, 1844.

…4 tom.—8vo. Paris, 1798.

Turnbull’s Voyage round the World—1800—1804—3 vols. London, 1805.—1 vol.—Philadelphia, 1810.

Narrative of Voyages and Travels, by Capt. Amasa Delano. Boston—8vo—1817.

Narrative of a Voyage around the World, 1803—1806—in the Russian ships Nadeshda and Neva, Capt. A. T. Von Krusenstern 4to—London, 1814.

Narrative of a voyage around the world, in the Russian ship Neva, 1803—6. By Wrey Lisiansky, 1vol. 4to. London, 1814.

Narrative of a voyage in the Pacific.—By G. H. Von Lansdorf, Physician of the Russian ship Nadeshda.

Kotzebue’s voyage around the World, 1823—1826., 2vols. 12mo. London, 1830.

Burney’s Chronological History of the Voyages and Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean. 5vols. 4to. London, 1803—17.

Beechey’s Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific—2vols. 8vo. London, 1831.

Rienzi, Ocèanie, ou Cinquième Partie du Monde, Revue Geographique et Ethnographique de la Malasie; de la Micronesia; de la Polynesia; et de la Manesie.—3vols. Paris, 1836.

Journal of Voyages and Travels.—By Rev. Daniel Tyerman, and George Bennet, Esq,. Compiled from original documents, By Jas. Montgomery. 2vols. 8vo. London, 1831.

Maritime Discoveries and Christian Missions considered in their mutual relations.—By John Campbell. 8vo. London, 1840.

Voyage of H. M. Ship Blonde to the Pacific Ocean in 1824—5.—Lord Byron, commander. 1vol. 4to. London, 1826.

Voyage de L’Uranie.—M. Freycinct, Paris, 1819.

Voyage Pittoresque.—Admiral D’Urville. 2 tomes, 4vo. H. Dupuy, Paris.

Voyage around the World, from 1806—12.—By Archibald Campbell. 1 vol. 12mo. Edinburg, 1816.

A Narrative of a Voyage in the (U. S.) East India Squadron, under Com. Read.—By J. Henshaw Belcher. 2vols, 12mo. New York, 1841.

Voyages and Commercial Enterprises.—By Richard S. Cleaveland. 2vols. 12mo. Boston, 1842.

Voyages around the World.—By Capt. E. Fanning. 1vol. 8vo, New York, 1835.

Four Voyages to the South Sea.—By Capt. Morrell. 1vol, 8vo. New York, 1832.

Cruise of the Frigate Columbia.—By W. M. Murrell. 1vol. 12mo. Boston, 1841.

Incidents of a Whaling Voyage.—By F. A. Olmstead. 1vol. 12mo. New York, 1842.

Cruise of the U. S. Sch. Dolphin in the Pacific.—By Lieut. Paulding. 1vol 18mo. N. York, 1831.

Voyage around the World in the U. S. Ship Potomac.—By J. N. Reynolds, 1831—4. 1vol, 8vo. New York, 1835.

Voyage around the World.— By C. Ruschenburger, 1834—7. 1vol. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1838.

Stewart’s (Rev. C. S.) Visit to the South Seas. 2vols, 12mo. New York, 1831.

The Flag Ship, or a Voyage around the World by the U. S. Ship Columbia.—By F. W. Taylor, Chaplain, U. S. N, 2vols. 12mo. New York, 1840.

Cruise of the U. S. Frigate Potomac around the World in 1831—4.—By F. Warriner. 1vol. 12mo. New York, 1835.

Voyage around the World, 1837—42.—By Sir E. Belcher. London 1843.

Voyage of the Artemise.—C. Laplace, commander. Paris, 1841.



Journal of a Tour around Hawaii.—1vol. 12mo. Boston, 1825.

Life of Ledyard, the American Traveler.—By R. Sparks. 1vol. 8vo. Boston, 1827

Rev. C. S. Stewart’s Residence on the Sandwich Islands,—1vol. 5th. edit. 12mo. Boston, 1830.

Ellis’s Polynesian Researches.—4vols.—12mo. Lond., 1831.

A Vindication of the South Sea Missions.—3vo. Lond., 1831.

Ormes’ Defence of the Missions in the South Sea and Sandwich Islands. 8vo. Lond. 1827.

 Memoirs of American Missionaries.—By Rev. Gavin Struthers.—1vol. Glasgow,—1834.

The Missionary’s Daughter.—1vol. 16mo. New York, 1841.

Astoria.—By Washington Irving. 2vols. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1835.

Extracts from the Letters and Journals of Daniel Wheeler, on a visit to the Islands of the Pacific Ocean.—London, 1833—Darton and Harvey, Greenchurch-street.

Townsend’s Narrative.,—1vol. 8vo. Philadephia, 1839

Scenes and Scenery in the Sandwich Islands and a Trip through Central America.—By J. J. Jarves. 1vol. 12mo. Jas. Monroe & Co., Boston, 1843.

Suppliment to the Sandwich Island Mirror.—Honolulu, 1840.

A Vocabulary of words in the Hawaiian Language.—Lahainaluna, 1836.

Refutation of the Charges Brought by the Roman Catholics, against the American Missionaries, at the Sandwich Islands.—Boston, 1841.

Lang’s View of the Origin and Migration of the Polynesian Native.—12mo. London, 1834.



Sandwich Island Gazette and Mirror;—A weekly,—Edited by Mr. S. D. Mackintosh,—Honolulu, Oahu. 1836 to 1839.

The Polynesian.—1st. series,—A weekly.—Edited by James J. Jarves. Honolulu, Oahu, 1840 to 1841.

The Hawaiian Spectator.—A quarterly Jounal.—Honolulu, Oahu. 1838 to 1839. Edited by Rev. J. Deill, & P. A. Brinsmade.

Temperance Advocate and Seamans’ Friend. A monthly.—Edited by Rev. S. Damon.—Established 1842.

Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine.—Vol. IX, Nos. 1 and 2. New. York, 1843.

Missionary Herald, from 1829. Boston; Crocker & Brewster.

Edingburgh Review.—Vol. 53.

Scottish Missionary Register.

Metropolitan Magazine. London, 1836.

Polytechnic Review.—London., May, 1843.

Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine.—Aug. 1843.

Westminster Review.—London, 1843.

Church of England Quarterly Review.—1843.

Nautical Magazine.—London, Vol 3, 1834.

North American Review.—Boston, 1843.

Democratic Review.—New York, 1843.

Christian Review.—Boston, 1843.

Annales de la Propagation de foi.—Paris.

Colonial Magazine.—London, 1843.

(Polynesian, 7/13/1844, p. 31)

4 tom...

The Polynesian, New Series, Volume 1, Number 8, Page 31. July 13, 1844.

Walking around Honolulu, 1853.


Oftentimes it is difficult to picture what places looked like and where they were situated. This paper appearing in Thrum’s Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1898 by Warren Goodale and supplemented by Thomas G. Thrum is an interesting read because it show buildings of old Honolulu from lithographs (in the collection of the Hawaiian Historical Society) done by Paul Emmert, and describes locations of the buildings.

[One of yesterday’s posts mentioned Kalakaua boarding a skiff makai of Halemahoe, which appears in this paper as Hale Mahoe. Luckily this volume and most years of Thrum’s Almanac and Annual are available online. For this particular article, click on the image below.]

Paul Emmert Lithograph No. 1

“HONOLULU IN 1853.” Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1898, pp 80-104.

William Hyde Rice’s Hawaiian Legends in English, 1923.

[From the Preface of “Hawaiian Legends by William Hyde Rice”]

The collection of Hawaiian legends of which a translation is given in the following pages represents the work of many years by William Hyde Rice of Kauai. However, it is only within the last few years that Mr. Rice has translated the legends from his Hawaiian manuscripts. He has tried to make his version as literal as possible, preserving at the same time the spirit of the original Hawaiian, its flavor, rhythm, and phrasing. He has avoided adding modern embroidery of fancy, as well as figures of speech foreign to the Hawaiian language and to its thought and expression.


Mr. Rice has been exceptionally well prepared for this work, as he has been familiar with the Hawaiian language from his earliest childhood. In fact until he was twenty, he never thought in English but always in Hawaiian, translating mentally into his mother tongue. In 1870 when he became a member of the House of Representatives, during the reign of Kamehameha V, Governor Paul Kanoa and S. M. Kamakau, the historian, both well-known Hawaiian scholars, gave Mr. Rice much help with his Hawaiian, especially teaching him the proper use of various complicated grammatical constructions, and explaining obscure variations in pronunciation and meaning.

The sources of the legends in this collection are varied. A number of the stories Mr. Rice remembers having heard as a child, and now rare ones were gathered in later years. Many are from more than one source, but have corresponded even in details, and almost word for word. The legend of Kamapuaa, for instance, is one of the first which Mr. Rice remembers hearing. When a boy, the places mentioned in this story were pointed out to him: the spot where the demi-god landed, where he found the hidden spring, and where he rooted up the natives’ sugar-cane and sweet potatoes. The story of “The Small Wise Boy and the Little Fool” he has also been familiar with since childhood. The places mentioned in this tale can likewise be pointed out.

Most of the legends are from Kauai sources, but a number have been gathered from the other islands of the group. Whenever Mr. Rice heard of an old Hawaiian who knew any legends, he went to him, sometimes going to several to trace a special story, as for instance, the “Jonah and the Whale” story, “Makuakaumana”, which after a long search he finally procured from Mr. Westervelt. This curious story seem to be more modern than the others of the collection. While hunting for a reliable version of this story, Mr. Rice incidentally heard the story of “Manuwahi” at Heeia from an old Hawaiian.

“The Bird Man”, “Holuamanu”, “The Destruction of Niihau’s Akua”, and “The Girl and the Mo-o”, were obtained from Mr. Francis Gay, who is one of the best living scholars of the Hawaiian language. The Niihau legend was heard from several other sources as well. Mr. Gay also gave the legends of the “Rainbow Princess” and the “Shrimp’s Eyes”; the ti plants mentioned in the latter legend can still be pointed out, growing at the mouth of a little valley near Holuamanu. The Hawaiian manuscript of part of the Menehune story was obtained from J. A. Akina, while the story of the “Rain Heiau” was told to him in 1912 by a man named Naialau, who has since died at Kalaupapa. “How Lizards Came to Molokai” and Paakaa and Ku-a-paakaa” were told Mr. Rice by a man from Hawaii named Wiu, while the Rev. S. K. Kaulili, who is still living at Koloa, Kauai, gave him the most complete version of the “Rolling Island”.

During Mr. George Carter’s term as Governor, a reception was given in his honor, at Hanalei, where Mr. Rice was much interested in the very fine oli (chanting) of an old Hawaiian, named Kaululua. From him he obtained a number of legends, including that of “Ulukaa” from corresponding versions of other already in his collection. Other legends have been lost forever on account of ill-timed ridiculing by some chance companion, for Mr. Rice has found that the old people who know the legends are very sensitive, and when they find an unsympathetic auditor, refuse to continue their stories.

[It is often just as important to read the front matter and the back matter of a book than simply heading straight to the main text itself. Many times you can learn a lot of important information.

The stories credited to W. H. Rice found in the Hoku o Hawaii are probably the ones Rice collected over the years.]

(Rice, William Hyde. “Hawaiian Legends. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 3.” Honolulu: The Museum, 1923.)

Hawaiian Legends

Hawaiian Legends by William Hyde Rice

Another good reference online, 1879.

[Found under: “NU HOU KULOKO”]

A highly valuable book.—Here amongst us is a malihini, George Bowser is his name, and he has began to prepare information about these islands to publish a Directory showing the condition, state, and everything pertaining to the income and the finance of Hawaii nei. It will show the occupation, residence and name of each businessman amongst the haole and the kanaka maoli. It will show the locations of the sugar mills, rice plantations, and others; their size and their overseers. It will show the major industries and their owners. It will also show the state of each district across the land, and what kinds of businesses are being run, and it would seem that the significance of this book is that it will have complete information about the areas inhabited by man, the work that is done, and the position and names of the people. This is a valuable book, and there should not be a lack of benefits coming from its references and illustrations. He will try to sell some of these books to Hawaiians who understand English. We hope that this progressive and beneficial endeavor will go well.

[This book is published as The Hawaiian Kingdom Statistical and Commercial Directory and Tourist’s Guide, 1880–1881.]

(Kuokoa, 11/29/1879, p. 3)

He buke waiwai nui.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XVIII, Helu 48, Aoao 3. Novemaba 29, 1879.

Hawaiian Language Imprints, Judd, Bell, and Murdoch, 1978.

This is a nice bibliography of Hawaiian-language material written between 1822 and 1899 compiled by Bernice Judd, Janet E. Bell, and Clare G. Murdoch in 1978. What is nice about this is that it lists where known copies at the time were located. Unfortunately, this online copy is not easily searchable like the 1869 Bibliography of the Hawaiian Islands in the last post. If you do a search, you will only be pointed to the word in the typescript, but if you want to know where it appears on the image of the original, you will only be pointed to the page where it appears. There is supposed to be another copy on Project Gutenberg, but the file seems to be corrupt. On Project Gutenberg, you would be able to do a word search against the image of the original with it highlighting the word or phrase searched for.

Hawaiian Language Imprints, 1822-1899.

Hawaiian Language Imprints, 1822-1899.

“Missionary Herald,” 1821–.

 Here is another reference available online. This publication was put out by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), reporting home to America on their work throughout the world. Of particular interest to us is what they say about Hawaii. Here for instance is an article appearing in the year of the overthrow, 1893.

The position taken by the United States Secretary of State in regard to affairs at the Hawaiian Islands is simply astounding. That he should suggest that the United States interpose for the restoration of the late Hawaiian Queen seems almost incredible. Even were it admitted, as it is not, that our representatives at Hawaii afforded unwarrantable aid to the revolutionary party, it is a strange suggestion that, after this lapse of time, our government should reseat upon the throne one who had forfeited all her rights to it, and whose influence was only detrimental to the interests of the islands. The so-called royal house of Hawaii has been its curse for years. Queen Liliuokalani had yielded to the corrupting influences which every decent man had recognized as becoming more and more potent in political affairs at the islands, and by influences which she knew how to exert on the worst classes, she secured the passage of the bill giving a home on Hawaii to the infamous Louisiana Lottery which had been driven out of the United States. Restrictions upon the opium traffic, so necessary for the welfare of Hawaiians, were removed. A faithful cabinet was displaced and men of no character were placed in power. But the final act, which was practical…

(Missionary Herald, 12/1893, p. 510.)


The position taken...

The Missionary Herald, Volume LXXXIX, Number XII, Page 510. December 1893.

…suicide of the monarchy, was the attempt on her part to abrogate the Constitution and by sheer force establish a new one of her own making. Even her subservient ministers refused to endorse the scheme, yet she insisted upon it and sought to incite the populace to stand by her in her autocratic plans. It was then that all the better classes united as one man and deposed her. Never was there a revolution more warranted by facts, never was one more peacefully accomplished, and a queen of worthless character was set aside and the monarchy by its own act came to an end. If Minister Stevens or the commander of the Boston erred in judgment in any transaction, which we are not prepared to admit, yet there is no valid ground for the interference of our government to reverse the revolution months after it was consummated. We do not speak here of the political question as to what it is expedient for the United States to do in reference to a protectorate or to annexation. Opinions of these points may differ, but it would seem as if there were no room for difference of opinion in regard to this question of reestablishing the old monarchy on Hawaii. The best portion of her citizens have asked for some form of connection with the United States. Our government has a perfect right to say yes or no to all these proposals. And the Provisional Government at Honolulu has a right to say to us, “Either accept our proposal or hands off.” We regret to be obliged to speak in such terms of propositions that come from our national administration. We certainly should not do so did we not believe that any attempt to restore the Hawaiian Queen to her throne would be a gross outrage, and would be followed by the most serious consequences to the moral and religious interests of the islands, as well as to their material prosperity. We cannot think that our people will tolerate any intervention which has for its object the replacing upon the throne of a sovereign whose influence will be only for evil.

(Missionary Herald, 12/1893, p. 511.)

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