Land Commissioners, 1846.


On the 9th of February, the King appointed Keoni Ana as Minister of the Interior [Kuhina Kalaiaina].

On the 10th of February, John Ricord, William Richards, Zorababela Kaauwai, J. Y. Kanehoa, and Ioane Ii were appointed Commissioners to settle land claims [Luna hoona i na kumu kuleana aina]; the Minister of Interior selected them and gave them an oath as per what is prescribed in Article 4 of Chapter 7 of Part One of the Second Act of Kamehameha III.

[O ka hoohiki, oia no:

Ke hoohiki nei kela mea keia mea o makou, e imi pono me ka paewaewa old i na kumu kuleana aina a na kanaka i hoopii mai nei no ke Aupuni o ko Hawaii pae aina, a e hooholo makou i ka olelo pono no ua kuleana la, ke kumu kuleana, ka loihi o ke kuleana, a me ka nui o ka aina, e like hoi me ka olelo iloko o ka Haawina eha o ka Mokuna ehiku o ka Apana m ua o ke Kanawai i kapaia, ‘He Kanawai hoonohonoho i na hana i haawiia i na Kuhina o ko Hawaii Pae Aina,’ i hooholoia ma Honolulu i keia la _____ o _____, 18_____.

Imua o’u _____ _____, ke Kuhina Kalaiaina.

The oath reads:

We and each of us do solemnly swear that we will carefully and impartially investigate all claims to land submitted to us by private parties against the government of the Hawaiian Islands; and that we will equitably adjudge upon the title, tenure, duration and quantity thereof, according to the terms of article fourth of the seventh chapter of the first part of an act entitled “An act to organize the executive departments of the Hawaiian Islands,” passed at Honolulu, _____ day of _____, 18____.

Subscribed and sworn to, this _____ day of _____, 18_____.

Before me, _____ _____,

Minister of the Interior.]

(Elele Hawaii, 3/3/1846, p. 184)


Ka Elele Hawaii, Buke I, Pepa 24, Aoao 184. Maraki 3, 1846.


“American Queen”? 1917.


Clarifications by a Newspaper Writer about Her.


To “Ke Ola o Hawaii,”

Appearing in the British newspaper, The Outlook, of the other week, there were a number of awe-inspiring lines about our Queen, Liliuokalani, titled: “An American Queen.” This is how it went:

Americans sometimes forget that within one of the Territories of the United States there lives a real ex-Queen who owes the loss of her crown to the activities of American missionaries.

This Queen is, of course, Liliuokalani, of Hawaii, dethroned in the revolution of 1893. She is now a frail old lady of nearly seventy-nine years, and few but her immediate household and closest friends ever have the opportunity of meeting and talking with her.

It is interesting to record that because of one of the tragedies of the present war this aged Queen has permitted for the first time an American flag to fly over her home. The news of this incident comes to us in a letter from a correspondent in Hawaii. This correspondent writes:

It was my privilege a few days ago to attend what will possibly be the last public reception she will ever give to members of the Hawaiian Senate—some of her own race, and some sons of the missionaries who were mainly responsible for her overthrow. Although they belonged to a body absolutely democratic in form and elected by vote of the people as citizens of the United States, it was most interesting and somewhat touching to note the loyalty and love shown the aged ex-Queen: almost, one could imagine, as if she were still their reigning sovereign. Continue reading

“Missionary Herald,” 1821–.

 Here is another reference available online. This publication was put out by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), reporting home to America on their work throughout the world. Of particular interest to us is what they say about Hawaii. Here for instance is an article appearing in the year of the overthrow, 1893.

The position taken by the United States Secretary of State in regard to affairs at the Hawaiian Islands is simply astounding. That he should suggest that the United States interpose for the restoration of the late Hawaiian Queen seems almost incredible. Even were it admitted, as it is not, that our representatives at Hawaii afforded unwarrantable aid to the revolutionary party, it is a strange suggestion that, after this lapse of time, our government should reseat upon the throne one who had forfeited all her rights to it, and whose influence was only detrimental to the interests of the islands. The so-called royal house of Hawaii has been its curse for years. Queen Liliuokalani had yielded to the corrupting influences which every decent man had recognized as becoming more and more potent in political affairs at the islands, and by influences which she knew how to exert on the worst classes, she secured the passage of the bill giving a home on Hawaii to the infamous Louisiana Lottery which had been driven out of the United States. Restrictions upon the opium traffic, so necessary for the welfare of Hawaiians, were removed. A faithful cabinet was displaced and men of no character were placed in power. But the final act, which was practical…

(Missionary Herald, 12/1893, p. 510.)


The position taken...

The Missionary Herald, Volume LXXXIX, Number XII, Page 510. December 1893.

…suicide of the monarchy, was the attempt on her part to abrogate the Constitution and by sheer force establish a new one of her own making. Even her subservient ministers refused to endorse the scheme, yet she insisted upon it and sought to incite the populace to stand by her in her autocratic plans. It was then that all the better classes united as one man and deposed her. Never was there a revolution more warranted by facts, never was one more peacefully accomplished, and a queen of worthless character was set aside and the monarchy by its own act came to an end. If Minister Stevens or the commander of the Boston erred in judgment in any transaction, which we are not prepared to admit, yet there is no valid ground for the interference of our government to reverse the revolution months after it was consummated. We do not speak here of the political question as to what it is expedient for the United States to do in reference to a protectorate or to annexation. Opinions of these points may differ, but it would seem as if there were no room for difference of opinion in regard to this question of reestablishing the old monarchy on Hawaii. The best portion of her citizens have asked for some form of connection with the United States. Our government has a perfect right to say yes or no to all these proposals. And the Provisional Government at Honolulu has a right to say to us, “Either accept our proposal or hands off.” We regret to be obliged to speak in such terms of propositions that come from our national administration. We certainly should not do so did we not believe that any attempt to restore the Hawaiian Queen to her throne would be a gross outrage, and would be followed by the most serious consequences to the moral and religious interests of the islands, as well as to their material prosperity. We cannot think that our people will tolerate any intervention which has for its object the replacing upon the throne of a sovereign whose influence will be only for evil.

(Missionary Herald, 12/1893, p. 511.)

Continue reading

More on fishponds, 1901


The most interesting of the fishery resources of the islands are the fish-ponds. This is the only place within the limits of the United States where they are found on such an immense scale and put to such general and beneficent use. The time of the building of many of these ponds goes back into the age of fable, the Hawaiians, for instance, attributing the construction of one of the most ancient, the deep-water fish-pond wall at the Huleia River on Kauai, to the Menehunes, a fabled race of dwarfs, distinguished for cunning industry and mechanical and engineering skill and intelligence. Many of the very old ponds are still in practical use and look as though they would last for centuries yet. As the ponds were originally owned by the kings and chiefs, it is very probable that most of them were built by the forced labor of the common people. There is a tradition amongst the natives that Loko Wekolo (Wekolo pond), on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, was built about 250 years ago, and that the natives formed a line from the shore to the mountain and passed the lava rock from hand to hand till it reached the shore where the building was going on without once toughing the ground in transit. As the distance is considerably over a mile, this speaks well for the density of the population at that time.

The ponds are found principally in the bays indenting the shores of the islands, the common method of construction having been to build a wall of lava rock across the narrowest part of the entrance to a small bay or bight of land and use the inclosed space for the pond. They were also built on the seashore itself, the wall in this case being run out from two points on the shore, some distance apart, in the shape of a half-circle. Most of the Molokai fish ponds were built in this manner. A few were constructed somewhat interior and these are filled by the fresh-water streams from the mountains or by tidal water from the sea carried to them by means of ditches. Most of the latter are on Oahu, near Honolulu. The Nomilo fish pond at Lawai, on Kauai, is formed from an old volcanic crater with an opening toward the sea, across which a wall has been built, and as the opening is below the surface of the sea the tide plays in and out when the gates are opened.

In the sea ponds the walls are about 5 feet in width and arc built somewhat loosely in order that the water can percolate freely. The interior ponds have dirt sides generally, although a few have rock walls covered with dirt, while others have rock walls backed with dirt. The sea ponds generally have sluice gates which can be raised or lowered, or else which open and close like a door. In the interior ponds there are usually two small bulkheads with a space about 8 feet square between them. Each of these has a small door which usually slides up or down. When the tide is coming in both doors are opened and the fish are allowed to go in freely. When the tide turns the doors are closed. When the owner wishes to remove any of the fish he generally opens the inner door when the tide is ebbing. The fish rush into the narrow space between the bulkheads, from which they are dipped out by means of hand dip nets. In the sea ponds the gate is opened when the tide is coming in and when it turns it is closed.

There is usually a small runway, built of two parallel rows of loosely piled stones from the gate to about 10 feet into the pond. As the fish congregate in this runway when the tide is going out, it is very easy to dip out the supply needed for market. Seines and gill nets are also swept around the inside of the ponds at times in taking fish from them, and as they are quite shallow this is done easily.

The sea ponds usually contain only the amaama, or mullet, and the awa. In the fresh and the brackish water ponds gold-fish, china-fish, oopu, opai [opae], carp, aholehole, and okuhekuhe are kept. Practically no attempt at fish-culture is made with these ponds. Besides the fish which come in through the open gates, the owner usually has men engaged at certain seasons of the year in catching young amaama and awa in the open sea and bays, and transporting them alive to the fish ponds. They are kept in the ponds until they attain a marketable size, and longer frequently if the prices quoted in the market are not satisfactory. They cost almost nothing to keep, as the fish find their own food in the sea ponds. It is supposed that they eat a fine moss which is quite common in the ponds.

There are probably not more than one-half the number of ponds in use to-day that there were thirty years ago. There are numerous reasons for this, the principal ones being as follows:

1. The native population is dying off rapidly, and where there were prosperous and populous villages in the early years of the last century there is practically a wilderness now. Owing to this depopulation there would be no sale for fish in the immediate neighborhood of the ponds there, the only place where it could be sold owing to the difficulty in transporting fish any distance without the use of ice, and the ponds would naturally be allowed to go to decay, the walls breaking down from the action of storms, and the sea filling them with sand when they are located on the immediate shore. This condition of affairs is especially prevalent on Molokai.

2. Two of the important crops of the islands are rice and taro. As both must be grown in a few inches of water, and are very profitable crops, a number of the interior ponds were turned into rice fields and taro patches. Oahu has shown the greatest changes in this regard.

3. On Hawaii ponds were filled up by the volcanic lava flows of 1801 and 1859. The Kamehameha fish pond, which was filled up in this manner in 1859, was said to have been the largest on the islands. Only traces of it are now to be found on the beach.

4. At Hilo, on Hawaii, some ponds, mostly quite small, are so filled with the water hyacinth that it is impossible to work them any more. This year a few of the best of these were cleaned out, but as there is very little money to be made out of them, and their ownership is in dispute, there is but little desire to do much to build them up.

5. Other ponds have been filled up to make way for building operations and for other purposes. This is especially true of ponds in and around Honolulu and Lahaina. There used to be a number of fish ponds on Lanai, but they have all been allowed to fall into decay.

A number of ponds are kept up by their owners merely as private preserves, as it were, the fish taken from them being either consumed by the owner’s household or given to friends. These are scattered all over the islands.

The following is a rough list of the fish ponds still in existence, or traces of which remain, together with their area and a statement so far as possible of their present condition. There is no great claim to accuracy in this list, as many of the ponds are in inaccessible regions of the islands, and in such cases the writer was obliged to depend upon others for reports as to their present condition:…

[For the rest of this report showing the locations, names, and sizes of the many loko i’a across the Hawaiian Islands, and fish produced at the time of the report, etc., etc., see: U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Part XXVII, Report of The Commissioner for the Year Ending June 30, 1901.

The fish pond report is a section of Commercial Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands, by John N. Cobb, Agent of the United States Fishing Commission, which runs from page 381 to 499.

Also of interest (actually the whole report is interesting), is  Preliminary Report on an Investigation of the Fishes and Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands, by David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Evermann, which is found from page 353 to 380. ]

Advertisement by company that made Kauikeaouli memorial, 1914.

Stone Tablet Made by the Honolulu Monument Works, Ltd

This was actually made out of our Hawaiian Stone, and it is praised as a fine memorial here in Hawaii.

MONUMENTS of Granite [Pohaku Onionio], Marble [Mabala], and Hawaiian Stones engraved and ready to stand, from $20 and higher.

FENCES made of metal pipe, for all jobs, at reasonable prices.


King and Punchbowl Streets, Mail Box 491.

It is open for people to come tour. Mail correspondences are welcomed, and hundreds of pictures of our monuments and their prices will be sent if asked for.

[It seems like this establishment was located right across from Kawaiahao Church, as seen in this picture on page 303 of the July 1912? edition of the Pacific Magazine.

Do check out all the rest of the priceless pictures in that volume of Pacific Magazine!]

(Kuokoa, 4/3/1914, p. 4)

He Papa Pohaku Keia i Hanaia e Ka Honolulu Monument Works, Ltd

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LII, Helu 14, Aoao 4. Aperila 3, 1914.

Ka Elele, 1845–1848.



[“Ka Elele” (1845–1848) is not available yet on either or It is however available on Google Books at! The images were again taken from a tightly bound book, so once again, the text in the margins are hard to read. See the very first page below. The left side is distorted and the words almost cannot be made out. The pages need to be unbound and then scanned if we are to get clear, legible images of the entire newspaper!]

(Elele, 4/1/1845, p. 1)


Ka Elele, Buke 1, Pepa 1, Aoao 1. Aperila 1, 1845.

Another “Memoirs of Obookiah” translation, 1867.

Book of the Moolelo of Heneri Opukahaia.

We are printing belwo the first pages of and the Table of Contents of the Chapters of the story of this Hawaiian that was educated in America. In this book is seven chapters, and it is almost a hundred pages. It is being printed in America and it will be here in a few more months.

THE STORY OF HENERI OPUKAHAIA—Born in Hawaii, A. D. 1787, and Died in America, February 17, 1818—The First Fruit of Hawaii nei. Printed by the American Tract Society [Amerika Ahahui Teraka], New York, 1867.


The majority of this Moolelo was translated from a book published in English in the United States of America. However, information was researched, and some of the errors of the book was corrected. Some things were added from the moolelo that Rev. S. W. Papalua investigated at Kealakeakua, Hawaii.

This story of Heneri Opukahaia is something important to us Hawaiians; for this is the first of the miracles that God performed benevolently upon our People; and through this start, the enlightenment, the knowledge, and the righteousness of Hawaii has increased until this day.

Should this moolelo become something which increases our love for God and our glorification of Jehovah, that will be enough…

[A couple of years later in 1867, the original translation was appended to and corrected with the information collected by that same S. W. Papaula of Napoopoo, and published in book form under the title: “KA MOOLELO O HENERI OPUKAHAIA, UA HANAUIA MA HAWAII, M. H. 1787, A UA MAKE MA AMERIKA, FEBERUARI 17, 1818. OIA KA HUA MUA O HAWAII NEI.”]

(Kuokoa, 5/18/1867, p. 3)

Buke Moolelo o Heneri Opukahaia.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke VI, Helu 20, Aoao 3. Mei 18, 1867.