Ka Pua Hau o Maleka, difficult to read… 1896.


(This is the first Mele that Victoria Kamamalu composed).

Auhea wale ana oe
E ka Pua hau o Maleka
Ke au nei ka manao
Pehea o Niagara
Kela wai kamahao
Wai halulu i ka moana
Nana i na moku
Lohe aku nei Rusia
Aohe i hopo Ladana
I ka nui o Asia
Hue aku ka moana nui
Laki ka moana Iniana
Ehuehu o Enelani
Ke kowa Setokia
Aiala oe e Parau
No’u o Aina Hau
A ka wai o Norewai
Pau mai kou palena
Ilaila au la oki
Lawe au la Linohau
A ai ka manu iluna
U—hoi o ka ihu ia.

[This newspaper is not very easy to read online. Hopefully it will be rescanned soon.]

(Nupepa Ka Oiaio, puka pule, 2/7/1896, p. 4)


Nupepa Ka Oiaio (puka pule), Buke VII, Helu 50, Aoao 4. Feberuari 7, 1896.


Poepoe’s chart of the traditional month names, 1906.



Names of the Months of Hawaii Nei.


1 Kaelo  Ikuwa  Ikuwa  Hilina  Ikuwa  January
2 Kaulua  Makalii  Hinaiaeleele  Ikiiki  Welehu  February
3 Nana  Hinaiaeleele  Welo  Kaaona  Kaelo  March
4 Welo  Kaelo  Makalii  Makalii  Kaulua  April
5 Ikiiki  Ka’ulua  Kaelo  Hinaiaeleele  Kaaona  May
6 Kaaona  Kaaona  Kaulua  Mahoe-mua  Nana  June
7 Hinaiaeleele  Ikiiki  Nana  Mahoe-hope  Mahoe-mua  July
8 Mahoe-mua  Nana  Ikiiki  Welehu  Mahoe-hope  August
9 Mahoe-hope  Hilina  Kaaona  Hilinehu  Welehu  September
10 Ikuwa  Hilinama  Hilinehu  Ka’ulua  Makalii  October
11 Welehu  Hilinehu  Hilinama  Kaelo  Hilinama  November
12 Makalii  Welehu  Welehu  Hilinama  Hilinehu  December

[This is Joseph Mokuohai Poepoe’s chart appearing in his series comparing various histories, “Moolelo Hawaii Kahiko” [Old Hawaiian History], appearing in the newspaper Na’i Aupuni.]

(Na’i Aupuni, 10/18/1906, p. 1)


Ka Na’i Aupuni, Buke II, Helu 117, Aoao 1. Okatoba 18, 1906.

Traditional month names, 1895.

Hawaii Island Reckoning of the Months.

Kaelo, is the month of January
Kaulua ” ” February
Nana ” ” March
Welo ” ” April
Ikiiki ” ” May
Kaaona ” ” June
Hinaiaeleele ” ” July
Mahoe Mua ” ” August
Mahoe Hope ” ” September
Ikua ” ” October
Welehu ” ” November
Makalii ” ” December

This above is how the fishermen reckoned the months.

Nana, is the month of January
Welo ” ” February
Ikiiki ” ” March
Hinaiaeleele ” ” April
Kaaona ” ” May
Mahoe Mua ” ” June
Mahoe Hope ” ” July
Ikua ” ” August
Welehu ” ” September
Makalii ” ” October
Kaelo ” ” November
Kaulua ” ” December

This above is how the farmers of Hawaii reckoned the months.


Ikua, is the month of January
Makalii ” ” February
Hinaiaeleele ” ” March
Kaelo ” ” April
Kaulua ” ” May
Kaaona ” ” June
Ikiiki ” ” July
Nana ” ” August
Hilina ” ” September
Hilinama ” ” October
Hilinehu ” ” November
Welehu ” ” December


Hilina, is the month of January
Ikiiki ” ” February
Kaaona ” ” March
Makalii ” ” April
Hinaiaeleele ” ” May
Mahoe Mua ” ” June
Mahoe Hope ” ” July
Welehu ” ” August
Hilinehu ” ” September
Kaulua ” ” October
Kaelo ” ” November
Hilinama ” ” December


Ikiiki, is the month of January
Kaelo ” ” February
Hinaiaeleele ” ” March
Kaulua ” ” April
Kaaona ” ” May
Nana ” ” June
Mahoe Mua ” ” July
Mahoe Hope ” ” August
Welehu ” ” September
Makalii ” ” October
Hilina ” ” November
Hilinehu ” ” December

S. H. P. Kalawaiaopuna,

Kalaupapa, October 3, 1895.

[This is just one of many differing explanations of the traditional names of months by the various islands.]

(Kuokoa, 10/12/1895, p. 4)

Ka Helu Malama o Hawaii.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XXXIV, Helu 41, Aoao 4. Okatoba 12, 1895.

Let the old men go forth and lie upon the roads… 1895.


This above are the initial words of the very first law promulgated in the communities of Hawaii, and those words spoken by one in authority still remain. Here below is the the law in its entirety:

“MAMALAHOE KANAWAI—Let the old men go forth and lie upon the roads; let the old women go forth and lie upon the roads; let the children go forth and lie upon the roads.”

This first law was proclaimed by Paiea (Kamehameha I) after his head was struck by some fishermen at the seashore in Puna, Hawaii, because they mistakenly thought he was someone else. When his head was struck with the blow from a canoe paddle, the men fled, there being five of them; that was when Paiea rose, picked up a rock, and made to chase after them, however, his foot was caught in a rock crevice, and his chase was cut short. The rock in his hand fell, and there was no getting it back. And it was this disappointment which caused him to proclaim these famous and powerful words in our history. The place where Paiea’s foot was caught can be seen to this day.

Here, we take what is shown on pages 94 and 95 of “Ka Buke Lapaau me na Mea Pili Kaulana” which was published by Kamaki [Thomas P. Spencer]:¹

“Soon after this battle (Kepuwahaulaula), the fishermen who years earlier struck the head of Kamehameha with a paddle near the sea were brought before him by his officers. This shameful act of theirs was made known to Kamehameha face to face, for which his officers demanded that they be killed by stoning them to death.

“The aloha Kamehameha had for his fellow man was expressed for the first time in his famous pardon by announcing:

“‘Mamalahoe Kanawai: you are prisoners of war, but you are forgiven for unwittingly striking my head–I escaped, but nearly was in trouble.’

“Here, O Reader, do recognize–love for his fellow man was the cure² for which allowed for the release of these rebels of Puna by Kamehameha, and him not giving regard to the calls by his officers to put them to death. This is a fine comparison to President Dole of the Republic; he with his Executive Powers does not come close to a hundredth of the Kanawai Mamalahoe, in his treatment of the Hawaiian prisoners of the revolution of January 17, 1895 who continue to be imprisoned albeit the lahui are united in wanting them released. That was an uncivilized time when [the men] were triumphantly released by Kamehameha, and this is a knowledge and civilization, and yet Dole has not given clemency to the Hawaiian prisoners for the fame of his name and that of his Nation.”

Our elucidation of this famous story is not like that of Spencer’s, but the basis of his explanation of Kamehameha’s forgiving those who injured him, that is what we want to make clear at this time, so that true love of one’s fellow man is seen by them.

¹This book was republished in 2003 by Bishop Museum Press as: Buke ‘Oihana Lapa’au me na ‘Apu la’au Hawai’i (Book of Medical Practices and Hawaiian Prescriptions). See here for further description.

²”Laau lapaau” [medicinal cure] is the word chosen here because this story appears in a book of traditional medicinal practices.

(Makaainana, 11/25/1895, p. 4)


Ka Makaainana, Buke IV—-Ano Hou. Helu 22, Aoao 4. Novemaba 25, 1895.

More on Nupepa Elele and its missing pages, 2013.

Nupepa Elele. Missing Issues.

Nupepa Elele. Missing Issues.

I did a quick spreadsheet on the currently missing issues of Nupepa Elele. If we consider that each issue comprised of four pages, that would mean at this point, with approximately 561 issues missing of a total of 663 issues, that we are without information printed on 2,244 pages running from 1879 to 1892! These issues could be somewhere in these islands, or far, far away. Spread the word that we are looking for Hawaiian newspapers. More newspaper pages would give a clearer view of history/histories. Perhaps some day, i will complete one of these spreadsheets for each of the Hawaiian-Language Newspapers, showing what is available now, and what is missing.

[It is also unfortunate that a number of the issues of Nupepa Elele that do exist today are torn and taped, and in general are badly digitized, so if you are looking at them online, they are difficult (or simply impossible) to read!]

Click below for an overview of what issues of Nupepa Elele are currently extant (in black), and what is not (in red).

Nupepa Elele

Missing newspapers leave holes in histories, 1881.

[Found under: “LOCAL NEWS”]

We have received from P. R. Holi of Kauai, a response to the Elele, and what it published about him; this is his response which we accepted with great import: It is true, it was my friend and I who brought Kamahueeu, a person inflicted with leprosy [mai pake], and some other sick ones from Hanapepe without any problem to Lihue to the Sheriff [Makai nui], and then after completing this duty for him, I returned home; it was not me who caused him harm, it was some other officer; therefore, the Elele was totally misdirected in its publishing this, and the one who wrote the story was mistaken.

[Hopefully the missing years of the newspaper “Ka Nupepa Elele” (1879–1885), which includes the year the article referred to here appears, will not be missing forever! Might anyone have any ideas where these might be found?

It also should be noted that responding to a news article appearing in one newspaper in another paper like the response above, was a very common practice.]

(Kuokoa, 11/26/1881, p. 3)

Ua loaa mai ia makou mai a P. R. Holi...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XX, Helu 48, Aoao 3. Novemaba 26, 1881.

Ia oe e ka la e alohi nei… 1874.

The Birthday of the King.

Monday, the 16th of November, is the birthday of our beloved King Kalakaua. He was born in the year 1833, and he will be making forty-three years old. In the column ‘Ma ke Kauoha’ [By Authority], seen is the Government notice that the birthday of our King will be held as a Day of Thanks to the Almighty God, for the blessings received by our lahui this past year; He has kindly assisted our King and His People in progressive endeavors and in things that will benefit our homeland, and may He watch over the King during His time away from his Kingdom of Islands on His travels.

Therefore, we ask the lahui from Hawaii to Niihau to heed the good announcement of the Government, that this day shall be a day of prayer, and that meetings will be held to kneel and give appreciation to the Almighty Father; and let us not forget to ask of the Heavens to watch over the King who He in his benevolence has placed as a Father to the lahui of these islands in the Pacific Ocean, while He will be travelling to seek blessings for us all.

On Tuesday, November 17th, our King and the Governor of Oahu, J. O. Dominis, along with the Governor of Maui, J. M. Kapena, will go on a trip to Washington to meet with the President of the United States of America.

(Kuokoa, 11/7/1874, p. 2)

Ka la Hanau o ka Moi.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XIII, Helu 5, Aoao 2. Novemaba 7, 1874.

Kamehamalu dies in far away London, 1824.


At London, 8th July, Her Majesty TAMEHAMALU, Queen of the Sandwich Islands. The cause of her death was inflammation of the lungs.—She was sensible she was dying, and was quite resigned. The separation of the King and Queen was very affecting.—”We are,” adds the London paragraphist, “in the the less grief for his Majesty’s loss, as we understand he has four more wives at home.” Unfortunately for this unfeeling attempt at wit, there is no truth in it. Since the conversion of the Sandwich Islanders to Christianity, polygamy has been abolished.—The Queen lay in state two days before her interment. Her coffin was covered with her ornaments, intermixed with bouquets of flowers, and the floor was strewed with rose leaves. The body was wrapped tightly in waxed linen. The coffin bore this inscription:—”Tamehamalu Eli—No Na aina o awahi—Make i Pelekani—22 Makaika Taitu—London 8 Kemahoe o ke Maikiki—1824.”—In English, “Tamehamalu, Queen of the Sandwich Islands, departed this life in London, on the 8th July, 1824, aged 22 years.” She could read English very well, and could speak it a little. The King sustained his loss like a Christian.—Raising his eyes from the body, he said, “She is gone to Heaven.” At the last date, the King was very ill, and could not, without difficulty, indite a despatch to his favorite minister “William Pitt,” announcing his loss. The British King, and Ministers, paid every mark of attention on this occasion.

[Mahalo to Ramona Ho by way of the Antonios for getting this great article to me!

It is important to note that although Chronicling America is a great site for looking up information, it does have its limitations. 1) It does not include all of the states. 2) All of the newspapers in a given state are not necessarily made accessible. 3) Even if a given newspaper is included, it does not necessarily mean that all issues of that paper are accessible. 4) The years included are only from 1836–1922.]

(New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 8/30/1824, p. 3)


New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, Volume XVI, Number 804, Page 3. August 30, 1824.

Kauai court records saved …by prisoners? 1911.


In some news received from Kauai, it told of the saving of the records of the court of Kauai from being destroyed by fire on the night of the 14th, that being this past Friday, through the quick action of a prisoner sentenced for attempted murder.

At 11 o’clock that night, the desk of Judge C. S. Dole in the courthouse of Lihue was on fire; the cause of the fire is unknown. The courthouse and the court records within it were saved because of the quick action taken by some of the prisoners in the jail; if the jail was located far away, there would have just been a pile of ashes. The prisoner who noticed it and went to go save it was Jona Davis, a prisoner sentenced a day earlier for attempted murder; he was assisted by some other prisoners.

(Kuokoa, 7/21/1911, p. 6)


Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLVII, Helu 29, Aoao 6. Iulai 21, 1911.

More on the state of taro, 1911.

Don’t Neglect the Planting of Kalo

It is to you, O Hawaiians, who we strongly encourage in regard to this question about kalo here forward, for large kalo-growing lands here in Honolulu will be dried out and put an end to by those who own them. Should those lands where kalo is being grown today truly be left to dry out, by our estimation, nearly 300 acres of kalo lands will be lost here in Honolulu, or perhaps four hundred or more acres of kalo lands will not be planted anymore. Therefore, to make up for this lost acreage, it is for all of you people outside of Honolulu to plant dry-land taro in fields and small patches, or in large loi where taro can constantly be cultivated.

If you have an abundance of kalo, then feed the sows, the hens, the turkeys, the ducks, and animals from which a person who plants a lot of taro can benefit; for you can eat the kalo, and the animals can eat the stalks [haha kalo], the leaves [luau], the watery residue from poi making [kale ai]; all these things are of great help to the farmer of kalo. Therefore, O Hawaiians, don’t be weary to grow kalo, and don’t neglect this lively endeavor on the land.

(Kuokoa Home Rula, 8/18/1911, p. 2)

Mai Hoopalaleha i ke Kanu Kalo

Kuokoa Home Rula, Buke IX, Helu 33, Aoao 2. Augate 18, 1911.