The Hawaiian Flag—a closeup. 1862.

“The Beautiful Flag of Hawaii,
Let it forever wave.”

[The image of the Hawaiian Flag as it appeared to the readers of the Kuokoa in 1862! (Courtesy of the library/archives at the Bishop Museum.)

The Library and Archives at the Museum holds so much priceless information! They need more funding to do important things!!]

"Ka Hae Nani o Hawaii...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 6, Aoao 1. Ianuari 1, 1862.

History of the Hawaiian Flag. 1862.

“The Beautiful Flag of Hawaii,
Let it forever wave.”

The Hawaiian Flag

We are pleased and happy about the Hawaiian Flag printed above, and the people subscribing to Ka Nupepa Kuokoa will be delighted to see it. We display the Flag, urged to do so by our great aloha for our King, Queen, and Ka Haku o Hawaii, their son, as well as for our Nation. The love by the people for their flag of their country is customary, and when they see her fluttering, it fills their hearts with joy.

The printing of the Flag in a Newspaper is something new, along with the displaying of its colors*. This is something not done previously here, as well as in some foreign countries. Perhaps our friends will inquire as to who did this work. Some Hawaiians did the work, people from this Archipelago, and they were taught to do this in our Printing Office. Here is how it was done: Woodblocks were carved in the fashion of the flag using two blocks. When it was printed, first the blue was printed, allowed to set, then the red was printed. This printing was done solely by Hawaiians. Such is the intelligence of the kanaka maoli, and that is how we recognize it. If we are instructed to do any task under the sun, Hawaiians can do the same as the white-skinned people.

If you should want to see this, you should support Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, and urge your acquaintances and friends to pay the two dollars a year. If you would kindly help, you will see many things that will gladden and instruct you.

You, O fluttering Flag,
The proud blossom of Hawaii.
Established by Kamehameha the great,
With Spear in hand, with strength,
Flutter over Hawaii and Niihau, and give protection.
Beneath your wings,
So that the peace of Hawaii be known,
By her King and the people as well.
The cross on your crest that Britain holds dear,
The Nations of Europe also give acclaim,
You are the Flag of old,
The time of Kamehameha the great,
The bravest warrior of Hawaii,
He who joined the islands,
With unity from end to end,
Living as one in contentment,
Along with the Spear upon which he erected,
The steadfast Nation of Hawaii.
We rejoice, and rejoice for all time,
His famed accomplishments,
You wave there above,
The crown of Iolani, the king
While giving shelter,
To Emma, the Queen.
Along with Ka Haku o Hawaii.
The Royal child of Iolani and Emma,
And Kalohelani, the Regent, Victoria Kamamalu.
The loving aunt of the young lord, Prince Albert,
Do remember his His Highness, Lot Kapuaiwa,
Cleansing the fruit of the pandanus in the sea,
Your fluttering has garnered
The peace that allowed us to seek,
The knowledge that has come,
To the Hawaiian populace.
That year long ago.
You were taken from your proper place.
Not a year passed,
You were raised by the loving hands of Admiral Thomas.
The one you fondly recall,
On the day of his death when it approaches,
You will wave there, O beautiful Flag.
O symbol of Hawaii’s Independence ;
Here is your body, being brought.
Before your beloved people,
By the Newspaper called,
Ka Nupepa Kuokoa of Hawaii,
The Excellence of your Nation.
A garment that adorns the Hawaiian People,
Wave forever.
Over the beloved sea of Mamala,
We, Hawaii, will cherish always,
The eternal glory of thy name.
The Hawaiian Flag! The Hawaiian Flag!!
The Flag of the Islands of Kamehameha IV.

This Flag was first designed in the year 1816 for Kamehameha I.

The King, wanting a ship to sail to China to sell Sandalwood, searched along with John Young, Isaac Davis, and Captain Alexander Adams of Kalihi, who is still living, for a Flag for the ship. It was a man-o-war, called the Forrester, carrying sixteen guns. Kamehameha I owned the ship.

When the Flag was completed, the ship sailed to Macao. The Flag was puzzled over, and was not accepted as a National Flag. The ship was charged exorbitantly for harbor fees, the Sandalwood was sold for a loss, and the ship returned to Hawaii.

The King learned of this loss, and he said that a tax should be placed on the harbor of Honolulu like those of foreign lands. That is when duty was first charged for the harbor.

In 1843, the 25th of February, this Flag was taken down by Lord George Paulet [Lo Keoki], with the intent that this Archipelago be taken as a possession of Great Britain. The British flag was raised on flag poles all around the land, until the 31st of July of that year.

It was Admiral Thomas who restored the Flag, for he disputed the actions of Lord George Paulet.

[Notice the English column to the left, which gives a translation of the Hawaiian. It seems this issue of the Kuokoa was sent to home by many a missionary, to show the progress they were making…

*A word of clarification: This is not the first time color appears in a newspaper. For more on this topic, see Hana Hou Magazine, August/September 2011: “Read All About It!” by Ron Williams.

For more flag articles, just click here!]

(Kuokoa, 1/1/1862, p. 1)

"Ka Hae Nani o Hawaii...

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke I, Helu 6, Aoao 1. Ianuari 1, 1862.

History of the Hawaiian Flag. 1880.

In Thrum’s Hawaiian Almanac and Annual for 1880, pp. 24–26, appears this article:

THE HAWAIIAN FLAG.

We exceedingly regret to report an unsuccessful search for the History of the present Flag of these Islands, the time of its adoption and the parties interested in its formation; but after diligent inquiries and research through volumes of voyages, histories, periodicals and manuscript journals during the past three years, we have to acknowledge the main fact lost in oblivion, while references thereto in various voyages and histories are confusing and contradictory.

There is a general idea and belief among many of our old residents that the present Hawaiian Flag was made by the late Capt. Alexander Adams before his voyage to China in the brig “Kaahumana, [Kaahumanu]” in 1817, and was by him first flown, not only in the Chinese waters, but on the coast of California. Others again have the impression that a flag was brought from China by him; but we can gather no information corroborative as to who was authorized in Chinese waters to design a flag for this, even small kingdom, though the description given viz: a St. George and St. Andrew’s cross in the corner filled in with blue, with field consisting of red and white stripes, shows almost virtually the East India Flag. Refering to Capt. Adams’ Journal we find the following mention only, that touches upon the points in question: ” April, 1816, The King of these Islands having a strong passion to purchase the brig, (‘Forrester,’ of London) and expressing the same, myself and Capt. Ebbetts was accordingly deputed to treat with him, but he would not purchase her without I would enter his service as her commander. I resultingly acquiesced, the brig being given up to him at Kealakekua, and called by him Kaahumanu * * *. I was accordingly honored on taking command with the Flag of his Majesty and a salute of 11 guns.”

This certainly refutes the general belief that the flag was made by Capt. Adams, as his own narrative shows a flag to have been here before him ; but
whether the present one or some other we cannot gather, for it is evident that there have been more than one. In another portion of his journal is an allusion to a flag—but also without description—that has no doubt given rise to the idea of his making the flag; where at Waimea, Kauai, at which port he had touched from Honolulu for supplies, en route for China, he notes: “Mch. 12, 1817, * * * Gave the King our ensign to hoist in lieu of the Russian, who said it was on account of his having no other.”

It is to be borne in mind that the allusion here is to the king of Kauai, and not Kamehameha, as Kauai was under its own King till 1821, and his possession of a Russian flag while the principal town was occupied by a Russian colony was not strange.

Finding these theories of Capt. Adams’ authorship exploded by his own writings, search was made in other directions with the following result. Vancouver, in his last visit, (1793) when he assured Kamehameha of England’s friendship and protection, gave him an English flag, which we find by Archibald Campbell, in his “Voyage round the World, 1806-1812,” arriving at these Islands Dec. 1808, that the English colors were used, for he says: “The King’s residence, built close upon the shore, and surrounded by a palisade upon the land side, was distinguished by the British colors.”

Jarvis [Jarves] states, (pp. 96) describing the period of about 1816, speaks of the flag, as somewhat similiar to the present, viz: “English Union, with seven alternated red, white and blue stripes.” This however is not coroborated by Lord Byron, in his “Voyage of the Blonde,” in 1825, in which he describes the flag as follows: “On all days of ceremony the Sandwich flag is hoisted on the forts; it has seven white and red stripes with a Union Jack in the corner.” (P. 121.)

This is almost the East India flag before described, and confuses the searcher after truth as to when the several changes took place. If Jarvis is correct in the flag he describes, and he certainly was in a position to know whereof he wrote, it is a grave error in the recorder of the “Voyage of the Blonde” to give so different a one nine years later. The present flag has eight stripes representing the Islands of the group-white, red and blue, with Union Jack in the corner. Capt. Hunt, who was here in the Baselisk [Basilisk] in 1845, is said to have changed the relative position of the colors of the stripes by placing the white on top instead of at the bottom, though there is a possibility of this being the time of adding the eighth stripe, Jarvis and Byron mentioning only seven. Capt. Hunt is also accredited with designing the Royal Standard now in use.

We leave the above subject as here recorded, trusting it will meet the eye of some one whose knowledge and memory will be freshened thereby to account the true history of the Hawaiian Flag, its origin, and parties interested in its formation.

[The original of this article is downloadable here at the University of Hawaii at Manoa’s EVOLS page! This publication is very useful for many random facts about Hawaii at the time. If you have not seen it before, you should go check it out!!]

History of the Hawaiian Flag. 1879.

Question on the Flag.—The Hawaiian Flag; when was it first made? Where? Who was the King? Who were the ones who thought about and helped in its making? Which flags was it made like? In other words, it was made following which flags? If there is someone who knows, please answer the “Kuokoa,” so that Hawaii’s great desire is fulfilled.

[This is an interesting question, considering that 17 years earlier, the Kuokoa (1/1/1862) ran an article on the history of the Hawaiian flag along with a color image of the flag!

The history was rerun again nine years later on 1/7/1871 (also with a color image of the flag).]

(Kuokoa, 3/22/1879, p. 2)

He Ninau Hae.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XVIII, Helu 12, Aoao 2. Maraki 22, 1879.

John Ioane Ukeke, in his earlier days! 1880

CHINESE THEATER!

OPENING

A GRAND CONCERT!

Of all types of Hawaiian Music, on the night of the

SATURDAY NIGHT, THE 26TH OF THIS MONTH!

AT THE

Chinese Theater!

SEASIDE OF AINAHOU.

There will be some Mele performed with Native Hawaiian instruments, and some with Haole instrments.

By the Famed One

MR. JOHN IOANE UKEKE!

IS THE ORCHESTRATING.

THE PERFORMANCE.

1. IPU PERFORMANCE [LEALEA PAIPU]—4 girls whose steps are like flashes of lightning.

2. CHEST SLAPPING PERFORMANCE [LEALEA PA-I-UMAUMA]—3 boys with swift hand motions.

3. MODERN PERFORMANCE [LEALEA HOU LOA]—4 dolls. The dolls will do a Hula Olapa, and their hand motions will be like those of a human.

4. UKEKE PERFORMANCE [LEALEA UKEKE]—Mr. John Ioane will show his total skill with the metal ukeke (Jew’s harp) with Hawaiian songs and Haole songs—He will exert himself with his ukeke playing in all fashions—[It doesn’t help that the image is not clear, but cannot make out the next line and a half. Anyone?] and your hearts will be captured.

5. ULIULI PERFORMANCE [LEALEA ULIULI]—2young children. They will show the fluttering and rattling of this thing, the Uliuli.

6. BANJO PERFORMANCE [LEALEA BANJO]—S. Kalama will exhibit his full skill at the Banjo; and its sound is like the ten-stringed lyre of Mahone [this is probably a reference to a story running in the Kuokoa: “KA MOOLELO O BERIANA KA WIWO OLE A ME MAHONE KE KOA” (4/26/1879–11/20/1880)]

FIVE MINUTE BREAK.

7. ACCORDIAN PERFORMANCE [LEALEA KOLIANA]—Henere [Henry] will show his skill at playing the Accordian, and the sounds he makes: Chinese, hoaeae, oli and the musical scale [pakoli]; it will make the crowd laugh and your sides will hurt.

8. OHELO PERFORMANCE [LEALEA OHELO]—2 women. They will show their abilities at this amusement. This is the amusement of the alii of the olden days that they greatly enjoyed.

9. KUI PERFORMANCE [LEALEA KUI]—2 women. These two ladies will display their readiness at this amusement while from their mouths come mele.

10. UKEKE PERFORMANCE [LEALEA UKEKE]—Mr. John Ioane will show his playing of the ukeke with Mele of the King; and this sweet voice of the ukeke will be accompanied by the steps of some girls doing lele this way and that.

11. MODERN PERFORMANCE [LEALEA ANO HOU]—The Famous Mr. Ioane will show once again some new things that will have the audience in stitches.

The doors will open at 7 P. M. Performances begin at 8.

ENTRANCE FEE: $1.00, $ .50. Tickets [Balota ?] available from hand of those in charge as well as at the entrance.

(Ko Hawaii Pae Aina, 6/26/1880, p. 2)

HALE KEAKA PAKE!

Ko Hawaii Pae Aina, Buke III, Helu 26, Aoao 2. Iune 26, 1880.

One more on the passing of Ioane Ukeke, 1903.

IOANE UKEKE HAS DIED.

Last Friday, Ioane Ukeke left this life, he was one of the old-time kamaaina of the Kukalahale Rain [famous rain of Honolulu], and he was a skilled expert at teaching hula and playing the ukeke in the days gone by, and it is because of Ioane’s skill at playing the ukeke that he received the nickname “Ioane Ukeke.” During the reign of King Kalakaua, he was a hula teacher [kumuao hula] in the royal court, but what made him famous was his showing off in costume, and there was many a time when foreigners mistook him for a prince when he passed by the street corner [huna alanui? huina alanui?] in his stylish attire and his silk waist [pakana ?] and velvet slacks with his beaver hat and monocle, with his short cane. Those proud days of Ioane have gone with the flow of time. He faced difficulties in his latter days, because of blindness. He was always seen on Fort Street with his favorite ukeke serenading those passing by before him, and those who felt aloha for this blind man would undo the tie of aloha and gave a helping hand to the impaired one. Aloha for him.

(Aloha Aina, 5/9/1903, p. 6)

MAKE O IOANE UKEKE.

Ke Aloha Aina, Buke IX, Helu 19, Aoao 6. Mei 9, 1903.

Famed Dandy, Ioane Ukeke, is no more. 1903.

His Joyous Voice is Gone.

On Friday of this past week [5/1/1903], Ioane Ukeke died, and with his death, so too has one of the famous people of thirty or forty years ago left. Those days, Ioane was seen on the streets of town in full attire of a gentleman, and he was often mistaken by the foreign haole, as a prince of the land; but these past years, he went blind, and he was seen on the street sides playing the ukeke and sticking out his hat this way and that for some coins given charitably by the passersby.

Ioane is very famous in Hawaii for his playing of the ukeke. In his youth, he was a hula teacher [a’o hula], and he often went before the court of the alii as a hula leader [poo hula ?]. In those days, Ioane was seen on the streets in a velvet suit, beaver hat, glasses and a cane; he was called “Dandy” by the haole.

(Kuokoa, 5/8/1903, p. 6)

Ua Nalohia Kona Leo Uhene.

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke XLI, Helu 19, Aoao 6. Mei 8, 1903.

Lava destroys the village of Hoopuloa, Kona. 1926.

The Harbor of Hoopuloa is Destroyed by Lava.

On this past Sunday [4/18/1926], the fire of woman of Mokuaweoweo appeared and reached the sea and it swept aside the things blocking its path. When it got close to the upland of Hoopuloa, the flow of lava separated into two, and one of the flows went straight for the village of Hoopuloa and the harbor, and the second flow went towards the village of Milolii. The fiery lava engulfed the harbor and village of Hoopuloa, and now they are but a heap of pahoehoe lava.

According to eyewitnesses of this engulfing lava, it was frightening seeing the lava coming down, and others say that it was truly awesome watching the flowing lava and its sweeping aside of all obstructions in its path.

The last word heard before the the Hoku went to the press was that this Wondrous Woman of Halemaumau returned to her Palace at Kilauea, and she is bringing to life her fires at the famed crater of Halemaumau.

Perhaps her rage has been quenched as the skin of that woman has touched the sea, but the memory of the tragedy which befell the people of that section of Kona is heartbreaking.

[And check out this awesome picture of the tragic event taken by Tai Sing Loo, put up by the Hawaiian Historical Society!]

(Hoku o Hawaii, 4/20/1926, p. 2)

Pau ka Uwapo o Hoopuloa i ke Ahi Pele

Ka Hoku o Hawaii, Buke XIX, Helu 48, Aoao 2. Aperila 20, 1926.

Kuhio and the Hawaiian Civic Clubs. 1918.

THE PARTY OF HAWAIIANS  WAS FILLED WITH ENTHUSIASM

Hawaiians Gathered at the Young Hotel at the Invitation of Prince Kalanianaole

HEARD WAS IDEAS FOR UNIFICATION

Desired that Hawaiians Stand Together as a People

On the sixth floor of the Young Hotel, at noon this past Tuesday, the Hawaiians of this town gathered for the first time, for a luncheon amid enthusiasm and joy, and this will be a regular thing, like the haole regularly meet at noon on Wednesdays.

This was a meeting organized by Prince Kalanianaole, and Hawaiians of good standing who live here in town were invited to attend, without attention being paid to political affiliation; it is true, many Hawaiians came, and the total number was about seventy-one; and being that this is just the beginning, it will be more full in the future, should this gathering at lunch become a regular thing.

At this meeting was Prince Kalanianaole, the chairman of this meeting and luncheon, and also Mayor Fern, Circuit Judge Heen, Rev. Akaiko Akana, Senators John H. Wise and Charles E. King, Representative Kumalae, Sheriff Charles H. Rose, and some other Hawaiian leaders of town; and everyone gathered there that afternoon seemed spirited to stand shoulder to shoulder, chest to chest, in all things; to lift this lahui from the low level to be equal with the other ethnicities in all aspects.

In order to move forward the agenda for which the Hawaiians gathered at that luncheon, Prince Kalanianaole explained that he greatly wished that the Hawaiian people would think as one, and as a means to that ends, he believes that meeting together in one place by holding regular luncheons of that sort, is where you’d discuss things and hear explanation from different people on all questions regarding the well-being of Hawaiians.

“The great problem seen amongst us, as a people,” according to him, is that we don’t cooperate; we all stand independently, and when we want good works to be done, it is very hard to accomplish for we lack unity and strength.

“Unifying ourselves, and listening to people talk about things that will benefit this lahui is very important for the perpetuation of the lahui; and as we gather regularly at meals of this sort, we will become familiar with each other, and we will hear ideas that should be carried out, and we will be seen as a lahui.”

Some time was spent by Prince Kalanianaole explaining the goals of that gathering while his speech was encouraged by applause, then he called up Circuit Judge Heen to give a few words of clarification before the crowd.

According to him, he was not prepared with a clear topic to talk about, however, he was in agreement with Prince Kalanianaole; all Hawaiians must stand together and work as one in all endeavors that will better themselves as a lahui.

J. Ordenstein, John H. Wise, Charles Achi, Jr., Fred Beckley, Charles E. King, Charles Dwight, Mayor Fern, and Rev. Akaiko Akana were called to explain their overall thoughts as to what is to be done to benefit Hawaiians from here forth.

Rev. Akaiko Akana shared his thoughts; when Hawaiians go back to their traditional occupations [?] and cherish their way of life, that is the only way Hawaiians will be blessed.

The big problem with this lahui, according to him, is the lack of knowledge and readiness to go into business for themselves and so too with being economical; when these important things are acquired by Hawaiians, they will be able to climb to a high level.

Mr. Wise and Mayor Fern were some who spoke of their ideas on the question of leasing a building [?], and their ideas were heard with much enthusiasm.

Before the meeting was adjourned, one idea was approved, to draft a constitution for a club, and to place it in the hands of a committee to lay out the foundation and mission that this association of Hawaiians would carry out.

(Kuokoa, 11/29/1918, p. 1)

PIHA OHOHIA KA PAINA A NA KANAKA HAWAII

Ka Nupepa Kuokoa, Buke LVI, Helu 48, Aoao 1. Novemaba 29, 1918.

Kapihe and his prophecy. 1862.

The Story of Kapihe.

When Kamehameha I was ruler over only Hawaii Island, and not all of the islands were his, and while the eating kapu was still enforced, and while he was living in Kohala, Kona, Hawaii, it was there that a certain man lived named Kapihe, and his god was called Kaonohiokala.

This man named Kapihe went before Kamehameha I and before the alii of Kona, and he said these words, “Listen, O Chiefs, a malo will stand, forty in length, as a path for the god; the god will come down and live with man, and what is down here will rise up above, and the archipelago from Kahiki* all the way to Hawaii will be joined as one. This is the sign that will come before this: there will be forty days of darkness and then rain will fall and thunder will crash and lightning will flash and seven rainbows will arch; there we will see the dead rise from the graves and all people will see their parents and hoa hanau [siblings, cousins] who died earlier.” And that is what Kapihe said to the King, alii, and makaainana. The chiefs and commoners were astounded at these shocking words spoken by Kapihe, and they called him crazy. This perhaps is the truth, for some of his predictions came true and others were denied.

This is how people are mistaken, they say, the heavens and earth will come together, and Hawaii and Maui will join together, and so too with Kahiki. And if that is the case, according to the mistaken ones, then God is not in heaven, and there is but one God, and that is Kapihe; that is what they said, and because all of the lands did not merge together as the they were saying, Kapihe was called a lying, crazed person.

Perhaps that is so, perhaps he was a liar, and perhaps not; it might be thought that Kapihe’s was a riddle and the land would not literally join together, and that he was a prophet. Perhaps his words were not his alone, but from God. Someone might ask, how did Kapihe’s words come from God, and here is the answer. What of Isaiah, that prophet, in Matthew 3:3? For this is what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah, ‘The voice of the one crying in the wilderness: ‘Prepare ye the way of Jehovah, make his paths straight.'” Here is the question there. Is it a real road, and is it a path that will be tread on by feet? It is believed not, but that it was a riddle from God through the mouth of his prophet. Maybe so too it was of Kapihe, the prophet of Hawaii; God gave the words for his mouth to speak, and Kapihe spoke what God of the heavens gave to us. And the nations of man joined as one, from America, and the other inhabited lands, they are here together with us. And the souls of the righteous are the same up above. The alii of whom Kapihe predicted was Kamehameha I, who was victorious over Maui and Oahu, and Kauai was left, and his grandchildren now rule over his Kingdom. This is the nature of Kapihe’s words. J. D. Kauakoiawe

Honolulu, March 15, 1862.

*Kahiki usually refers to foreign lands.

(Hoku o ka Pakipika, 3/20/1862, p. 1)

Ke Kaao no Kapihe.

Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika, Buke I, Helu 26, Aoao 1. Maraki 20, 1862.